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Tattoos move from society's margins to the mainstream 

AFP via Yahoo! News - Oct 08 3:13 AM
Thirty or forty years ago, those who had tattoos engraved on their bodies were usually sailors, truck drivers or bikers.

Happy talk as soldiers get taste of South Pacific 
The Scotsman - Oct 09 3:59 AM
THE army got a taste of the South Seas as Fijian soldiers from the Royal Highland Fusiliers celebrated Fiji Day by donning their national dress and cooking for their comrades.

Tattoos move from society’s margins to mainstream 
Central Chronicle - Oct 08 11:09 AM
London, Oct 8: Thirty or forty years ago, those who had tattoos engraved on their bodies were usually sailors, truck drivers or bikers.

The skin as canvas: The curious mainstreaming of body modification 
Lancaster Online - Oct 05 9:51 PM
Tattoos and other forms of body modification aren't just for rebels anymore, and most adults seem to know that.

tribal tatoo

 

 

- tribal tattoo

- tribal tattoos

See also Yaghan language.
Portrait of Yagan by George Cruikshank.
This portrait was painted from observations of tribal tatoo Yagan's severed head, which had shrunk substantially during smoking. tribal tatto According to George Fletcher Moore, it bears little resemblance to the tibal tattoo living face of Yagan, which was "plump, with a burly-headed look about ttribal tattoo it."

Yagan (IPA: [ˈjæɪgən]; rhymes with pagan) (c. 1795–11 July 1833) was tribel tattoo a Noongar warrior who played a key part in early indigenous Australian resistance tribaltattoo to European settlement and rule triabl tattoo in the area of Perth, Western Australia. After he led a series of tribal tatttoo attacks in which white settlers were killed, a bounty was offered for his tirbal tattoo capture dead or alive, and he was shot dead by a young settler. Yagan's death has passed into Western tribal tattoos Australian tribal tattoo folklore as a symbol of the unjust and sometimes brutal treatment of the indigenous peoples of Australia by colonial settlers.

Yagan's head tribal dragon tattoo was removed and brought to London, where it was tribal sun tattoos exhibited as an "anthropological curiosity". It spent over a century in storage at free tribal tattoo flash a museum before being buried in an unmarked lower back tribal tattoos grave in 1964. In 1993 its location was identified, and four years later it was exhumed tribal sun tattoo and repatriated to Australia. Since then, the issue of its proper reburial has become a tribal dragon tattoos source of great controversy and conflict amongst the indigenous people tribal tattoo flash of the Perth area. To date, the head remains unburied.

Contents

  • 1 Yagan's life
    • 1.1 Early life
    • 1.2 Relations tribal cross tattoos with settlers
    • 1.3 Wanted dead or alive
    • 1.4 Death
  • 2 Yagan's tribal rose tattoos head
    • 2.1 Exhibition and tattoo tribal burial
    • 2.2 Lobbying for repatriation
    • 2.3 Exhumation
    • 2.4 Repatriation
  • 3 Cultural tribal tiger tattoos references
    • 3.1 Alas Poor black tribal dragon tattoos tribal eagle tattoos Yagan
    • 3.2 Yagan's statue
    • 3.3 Literature and film
    • 3.4 Other cultural references
  • 4 See tribal cross tattoo also
  • 5 References

Yagan's life

Early life

A member of the Whadjuk hawaiian tribal tattoos Noongar people, Yagan belonged to a tribe of around 60 people whose name, tribal tattoos of angel wings according to Robert Lyon, was Beeliar. Lyon's information is not entirely reliable, tribal lower back tattoos however, and it is now thought that tribal eagle tattoo the Beeliar people may have been a family subgroup of a larger tribe that Daisy Bates called Beelgar.[1] According to Lyon, the tribal shoulder tattoos Beeliar people occupied the land south of the Swan and back tribal tattoos Canning Rivers, as far south as Mangles Bay. maori tribal tattoos It is evident, however, that the group had customary land usage rights over tribal tattooes a much larger area than this, extending north as far as Lake heartagram tribal tattoo Monger and north-east to the Helena River. The group also had an unusual tribal band tattoo degree of freedom to move over their neighbours' land, possibly due to kinship and marriage tattoo of a tribal star ties with neighbouring tribes.[2]

Yagan is thought to have been born around tribal wolf tattoo 1795. His father was Midgegooroo, an elder tribal cross tattoo designed of the Beeliar people; his mother was presumably one of Midgegooroo's two wives. Yagan was probably a free tribal tattoos Ballaroke in the Noongar classification. According to Green, he lower back tribal tattoo had a wife tribal bear tattoo and two children[3], but most other sources state that he was unmarried and childless. Described as tribal snake tattoo taller than average with an impressive burly physique, Yagan had a distinctive tribal tattoo on his right shoulder aztec tribal tattoos which identified him as "a man of high tribal sleeve tattoos degree in tribal law".[3] He tribal frog tattoo was generally acknowledged to be the most physically powerful of his tribe.[4]

Relations with tribal upper back tattoos settlers

Yagan would have been about 35 years feminine tribal tattoos old in 1829 when British settlers landed in the area and tribal shoulder tattoo established the Swan River Colony. For the first two years of the colony, relations between hawaiian tribal tattoo settlers and Noongars were generally amicable, as there tribal turtle tattoo was little competition for resources, and the Noongars welcomed the white settlers as Djanga, the returned spirits of the Noongar dead. phoenix tattoo tribal As time passed, however, conflicts between tribal angel tattoos the two cultures gradually became more frequent. The settlers took tribal star tattoo the view that the Noongars were nomads with no claim to the land over which they tribal tattoo pictures roamed, and so they considered themselves free to fence off land african tribal tattoos for grazing and farming. As more and more land was fenced off, the Noongars were increasingly denied access dragon tribal tattoos to their traditional hunting grounds and sacred sites, so by 1832 tribal tattoo wolf Yagan's family group was unable to approach the Swan or Canning Rivers tattoos tribal without danger, because land grants tribal back tattoo lined the banks. The Noongars' response to the loss of their hunting and gathering grounds was to take the settlers' tribal tiger tattoo crops and spear their cattle. They also developed a taste tree of life celtic tribal tattoos for the settlers' food, tribal flower tattoos and their constant theft of flour and other food supplies became a serious problem for tribal superman tattoo the colony. Another cause of conflict was the Noongar practice of firestick tribal cat tattoo farming, firing the bush to flush out game and encourage germination of undergrowth, which threatened the settlers' tribal name tattoos crops and houses.[5]

The first significant Aboriginal resistance to white settlement in Western Australia occurred in December tribal phoenix tattoo 1831 after Thomas Smedley, a servant of farmer Archibald Butler, ambushed some natives who were raiding a cross tattoos tribal potato patch, and shot dead one of Yagan's family group. A few tattoo fish tribal days later, Yagan, Midgegooroo and others tribal flower tattoo stormed the farmhouse and, finding the door locked, began to break through the mud-brick tribal jesus tattoo walls. Inside was another of Butler's servants, Erin Entwhistle, and his two sons Enion and Ralph. tribal tree tattoo After hiding his sons under the bed, Entwhistle opened the door to celtic tribal tattoos parley and was instantly speared to death by free tribal tattoo flash images Yagan and Midgegooroo. Noongar tribal law required that murders be avenged by mexican tribal tattoo the killing of a member of the murderer's tribal group, not necessarily the murderer. The spearing of Entwhistle may therefore tribal fish tattoo be understood as retribution under tribal law, as the Noongars would have tribal turtle tattoos thought of Butler's household as a family group.[2] The white settlers, however, tribal zodiac tattoos saw the act as the unprovoked murder of an innocent man.

In June 1832 Yagan mayan tribal tattoo led a party of Aborigines in an attack on two labourers who were sowing a field of wheat rose tribal tattoos alongside the Canning River near Kelmscott. One of the men escaped, but the other, tribal jesus tattoos William Gaze, was wounded and later died, possibly through tribal tattoo ideas infection of the spear wound. In response to this, Yagan was declared an outlaw with design flash free tattoo tribal a reward of £20 offered for godsmack tribal sun tattoo his capture. Yagan managed to avoid capture until scorpio tattoo tribal early October 1832, when a group of fishermen enticed Yagan and two of his friends into their boat, then pushed tattoos tattoo pictures tribal design celtic flash sun punk off into deep water. The temporary tribal tattoos three Noongars were initially taken to the Perth guardhouse, then later transferred to the Round House at Fremantle. Yagan was sentenced tribal bear tattoos to tribal bird tattoo death, but he was saved by the intercession of a settler named Robert tribal celtic tattoos Lyon, who argued that Yagan was defending his land against invasion, and was therefore not a criminal but tribal tattoo designes a prisoner of war, and was tribal tattoo stencils entitled to be treated as such. At the recommendation of John Septimus Roe, Yagan and his upper back tribal tattoos friends were instead exiled on Carnac black tribal arm band tattoos Island at the Governor's pleasure, under the supervision of Lyon and two soldiers.

Lyon was convinced that he could civilise Yagan and convert him celtic and tribal tattoos to Christianity, and hoped to use his tribal dragon tribal tattoo standing to obtain the Noongars' acceptance of white german tribal tattoos authority. To this end Lyon spent many hours with Yagan learning his language and customs. native american tribal tattoos However, his efforts were cut short when, after tattoos tribal dragons a month, Yagan and his companions escaped by stealing an unattended dinghy and rowing to tattoos tribal maori Woodman Point on the mainland. No attempt was made to recapture the men; apparently, the Government considered that tribal band tattoos they had been sufficiently punished.

In January 1833 two Noongars, Gyallipert and Manyat, tribal phoenix tattoos visited Perth tribal snake tattoos from King George Sound, where relations between settlers and natives were amicable. Two aries tribal tattoos settlers, Richard Dale and George Smythe, arranged for the men to meet a celtic tribal tattoo party of local Noongars in the hope that it might ideas for tribal tattoo encourage the same friendly relations in the Swan River Colony. On 26 January pictures of tribal tattoos Yagan led a group of ten formally armed Noongars in greeting the two men near Lake Monger. The men exchanged weapons and tattoos capricorn tribal held a corroboree, tribal crosses tattoos though neither group seemed to understand the language of the other. Yagan and Gyallipert then competed tribal rose flower tattoo at spear throwing, Yagan striking a walking stick from a distance of 25 metres.

Gyallipert and eagle tattoo tribal Manyat remained in Perth for free zodiac and tribal tattoo pictures some time, and on 3 March, Yagan obtained permission to hold another joker tribal tattoos corroboree, this time in the Post Office garden in Perth. The Perth and King George Sound men met superman and tribal tattoos at dusk, chalked their bodies, and performed a number of dances including tribal and maori tattoos a kangaroo hunt dance. The Perth Gazette wrote tribal moon tattoo that Yagan "was master of ceremonies and acquitted himself with infinite grace and tribal tattoo alphabet dignity".[6]

During February and March, tribal tattoo sleeve Yagan was involved in a series of minor conflicts with settlers. In February settler William Watson complained armband tattoo tribal that Yagan had pushed open his door, demanded a gun, and taken handkerchiefs, and barbedwire tribal band tattoos that Watson had had to give him black dragon tribal tattoos and his companions flour and bread. The following month, he was cool tribal tattoos among a group who received biscuits from a military contingent under Lieutenant Norcott; when Norcott tried to restrict his supply, Yagan crazy tribal tattoos threatened him with his spear. Later that month, Yagan was with free sumone tribal tattoo a group of Noongars negative tribal tattoo that entered Watson's house while he was away. The group left after Watson's wife called on neighbours for help, tattoo - tribal - cars but were brought back the next day to taurus tribal tattoo be lectured about their behaviour by Captain Ellis. The constant conflict prompted tribal back pieces tattoos The Perth Gazette to remark on "the reckless daring of tribal bird tattoos this desperado who sets his life at a pin's fee ... For the most trivial offence ... tribal lower back tattoo designs he would take the life of any man who provoked him. He is at the tribal seahorse tattoos head and front tribal star tattoos of any mischief."[7]

Wanted dead or alive

On the night of 29 April, a tribal tattoo lettering party of Noongars broke into a Fremantle store to steal flour and were fired upon by the caretaker tribal tattoos for the back Peter Chidlow. Domjum, a brother choctaw tribal tattoo of Yagan, was badly injured and died in jail a few days later. The rest of the free tribal tattoo pictures party then moved from Fremantle to Preston Point, where Yagan was heard to vow vengeance full back tribal tattoo for the death. Between fifty and godsmack tribal sun symbol tattoo sixty Noongars then gathered at Bull Creek, within sight of High Road, where they sea turtle tribal tattoos met a party of settlers who were shaded tribal tattoos loading carts with provisions. Later that day, the group tattoo tribal libra ambushed the lead cart, spearing to death two white men, Tom and John Velvick. Tribal law only tribal and celtic tattoos required a single death; the native Munday later explained that both were speared because tribal negative tattoo they had previously mistreated Aboriginal people. The Velvicks had tribal rose tattoo previously been convicted for assaulting Aboriginal people and coloured tribal tattoo designs west palm beach seamen. Alexandra Hasluck has also argued that a desire to steal the provisions was an tribal tattoo flash free important motive in the attack [8], but this has been refuted elsewhere [5].

For the tribal wing tattoo killing of the Velvicks, the Lieutenant-Governor Frederick Irwin declared Yagan, dragon and tribal design tattoos Midgegooroo and Munday outlaws, offering rewards of £20 free tribal tattoo ideas each for the capture of Midgegooroo and Munday, and a frog tribal tattoos reward of £30 for Yagan's capture dead or alive. Munday successfully appealed japanese tribal tattoo against his proscription. Midgegooroo and Yagan must have realised that they would be hunted by settlers, as one of a kind tattoo designs + tribal their group immediately moved from their territory north picture of tribal butterfly tattoo towards the Helena Valley. Four days after the murder, pictures of tribal tattoos from arm onto chest Midgegooroo was captured on the Helena River, and after a brief, informal trial was executed taino tribal tattoo by firing squad. Yagan, however, remained at large for over two months.

Late in May, tattoo - tribal Yagan was seen by George Fletcher Moore on his property in Upper Swan, and the two tattoo of dragon and tribal design held a conversation in pidgin English. Yagan then spoke in his tattoo tribal dragon own language; Moore wrote:

Yagan stepped forward and leaning with his left hand on my tribal and flower tattoos shoulder while he gesticulated with the right, delivered a sort of recitation, looking earnestly tribal circle tattoos into my tribal dove tattoo face. I regret that I could not understand it. I thought from the tone and manner that tribal eye tattoo the purport was this:-
You tribal fire tattoo came to our country; you have driven us from our haunts, and disturbed us in our occupations. As we walk tribal lower back tattoo designes in our own country we are fired upon by the tribal moon tattoos white men; why should the white men treat us so?[9]

Since Moore had little knowledge of Yagan's native language, Hasluck suggests tribal sleeve tattoo that this conjecture is probably more indicative of "a feeling of conscience on the tribal sleeves tattoos part of the white men" than an accurate rendering of Yagan's state of mind.[8]

Yagan then tribal tattoo full sleeve asked tribal tattoos pictures Moore whether Midgegooroo was dead or alive. Moore gave no reply, but a servant answered that Midgegooroo was a prisoner on tribal temporary tattoo Carnac Island. Yagan responded with a warning: "White man shoot Midgegooroo, Yagan kill three." tribal wave tattoo Moore made no attempt to capture turtle tribal tattoos Yagan other than to report the sighting to the nearest magistrate; upper back tribal tattoo he wrote, "The truth is, every one wishes him taken, wesley snipes tribal tattoo but no one likes to be the captor ... there is something in his daring which one women tribal tattoos is forced to admire."[9]

Death

Map of skirmish area showing gravesite and Henry Bull's mill

On 11 July 1833, two teenage butterfly with tribal lower back tattoo brothers named cancer survive tribal tattoo William and James Keates were herding cattle along the Swan feminine tribal tattoo River north of Guildford when a group of Noongars approached on their way to forearm tribal tattoos collect their rations of flour from Henry Bull's house. Being on friendly terms with Yagan, free tribal art tattoo flash the Keates brothers suggested he remain with them to avoid arrest. Yagan remained with gemini tribal tattoos them all morning, during which time the boys decided to kill hawaii tattoos and tribal turtles Yagan and claim the reward. William Keates tried once to shoot info on tribal tattoos him but the gun stopped at half-cock; no further opportunity arose before they were rejoined by the other looking for tribal tattoos natives. When the natives attempted to depart, the Keates took their last lower back tribal tattoo galleries opportunity. William pictures of tribal dragonfly tattoos Keates shot Yagan, and James shot another native, Heegan, in the act of throwing his spear. Both religious tribal tattoos boys then ran for the river, but William was overtaken and speared to death. rose and tribal tattoos James escaped by swimming the rose tattoo tribal river and returned shortly afterwards with a party of armed settlers from Bull's estate.

Moore records that a party of soldiers sea turtle and tribal and tattoo passed by the area shortly after shoulder and arm tribal tattoo the incident, and speculates that they must have "frightened the tattoo designs fariy and tribal natives (I supposed) or they would have carried off the bodies". When the party of tattoo pictures tribal back settlers arrived, they found Yagan dead and Heegan dying. Heegan "was groaning and his brains were partly tribal heart tattoo on back out when the party came, and whether humanity or tribal lower back tattoo galleries brutality, a man put a gun to his head and blew it to pieces." Yagan's tribal religious tattoos head was then cut from tribal ring tattoo his body, and his back was skinned to obtain his tribal markings as tribal scorpian tattoo a trophy. The bodies were buried a short distance from where they had been killed.

James Keates successfully claimed the tribal sea turtle tattoo reward, but his actions were widely criticised; The Perth Gazette referred to Yagan's killing tribal spider tattoos as "a tribal tattoo design pics west palm beach wild and treacherous act ... it is revolting to hear this lauded as tribal tattoo sun a meritorious deed."[10] Keates departed the colony the following month; the tribal tattoos shoulder reasons are unknown, but it is possible that he left from fear tribal upper back tattoo of being murdered in retaliation.

Yagan's head

Exhibition and burial

tribal wing tattoo pictures
A portion of George Fletcher Moore's handwritten diary, showing sketches of Yagan's head.

Yagan's head tribal wing tattoos was initially taken to aries tribal tattoo Henry Bull's house. Moore saw it there and sketched the head a number of times in his unpublished, handwritten diary, black tribal tattoo celtic cross with tribal design tattoos commenting that "possibly it may yet figure in some museum at home". The head was then preserved by smoking, dragon cross tribal tattoos by hanging it in a hollow tree over a flash tiger tribal tattoo art fire of Eucalyptus wood for three months.

In September 1833 Yagan's head was taken to London flower and tribal tattoos by Ensign Robert Dale. According flower tribal tattoos to Paul Turnbull, Dale appears to have persuaded Governor Irwin to let him have the head as an "anthropological curiosity" [11]. After arriving in London, Dale approached a gecko tattoo tribal number of anatomists and phrenologists attempting to sell the head for £20, claiming that it was worth twice hawaiian half sleeve and chest tribal tattoos that much. Having failed to find a buyer, he then entered into johnson rock tribal tattoo lower back tribal tattoo designs an arrangement with Thomas Pettigrew for the exclusive use of the head for one year. Pettigrew, a surgeon and antiquarian negative shoulder tribal tattoo who was well-known in pictures of tribal cross tattoos the London social scene for holding private parties at which he unrolled and autopsied Egyptian mummies, displayed the head on a pollinesian tribal tattoo table in front of a panoramic view of King George Sound that was reproduced scorpio tribal tattoo from Dale's sketches. snake tribal tattoos For effect the head was adorned with a fresh corded headband tattoo flash dragon tribal and feathers of the Red-tailed Black Cockatoo.

Pettigrew also arranged for the head to be examined by a phrenologist. Examination tattoo names in tribal design was considered difficult because of the large fracture across the back of tattoo samoa tribal the head caused by the gunshot. The findings, which were predictably consistent with contemporary European tattoo tribal celtic cross opinion of Indigenous Australians[11], were published as part of a tattoo tribal tiger pamphlet by Dale entitled Descriptive Account of the Panoramic View &c. of King tattoos & tribal George's Sound and the Adjacent Country,[12] which tattoos tribal wrists Pettigrew encouraged his guests to buy as a souvenir of their evening. The frontispiece tribal butterfly lower back tattoo of the tribal calf tattoos pamphlet was a hand-coloured aquatint print of Yagan's head by the artist George Cruikshank.

Early in October 1835, both Yagan's head and the panoramic tribal dragons tattoo view were tribal flowers tattoos returned to Dale, who was then living in Liverpool. On 12 October he presented them to tribal lower-back tattoos the Liverpool Royal Institution, where the head may have been displayed in a case along tribal sleves tattoo with some other preserved heads tribal sun tattooes and wax models illustrating cranial anatomy. In 1894 the Institution's collections were dispersed, and Yagan's head was lent to the tribal tattoo meaning eternaty Liverpool Museum; it is thought not to have been put on tribal tattoo shirt button front sale display there. By the 1960s tribal tattoo shoulder Yagan's head was badly deteriorated, and in April 1964 the decision was made to tribal tattoo work dispose of it. On 10 April 1964, Yagan's head tribal temporary tattoos was placed in a plywood box, along with a Peruvian mummy and a Māori head, and buried in Everton Cemetery's General upper back tribal tattoo designs Section 16, grave number 296. In later back design lower tattoo tribal years a number of burials were made around the grave, and in 1968 a local hospital buried 20 bull tattoo tribal stillborn babies and two babies butterfly tribal tattoos - lower back who had lived less than twenty-four hours directly over the museum box.

Lobbying for repatriation

For many years, at least since the early 1980s, a number of Noongar groups sought the cat tribal tattoos return of Yagan's head.

It is celtic and tribal art tattoos Aboriginal belief that because Yagan's skeletal remains are filipino tribal tattoo incomplete, his spirit is earthbound. The uniting of his head and torso will immediately set his spirit free to continue its eternal journey.[13]

It was free tribal tattoo unknown at that time, however, what had happened to the head after it left Pettigrew's possession. In the early 1980s, Ken Colbung free tribal tattoos with no pop ups full back tribal tattoos was entrusted with the search for the head by tribal elders. In 1985 he engaged galleries of tribal and celtic tattoo designs Lily Bhavna Kauler as a researcher, and a number of unsuccessful enquiries were made to various United how to design tribal tattoos Kingdom museums. In the early 1990s, Colbung enlisted the aid of University lower back tribal butterfly tattoos of London archaeologist Peter Ucko. maori tribal tattoo One of Ucko's researchers, Cressida Fforde, was funded by the Government of Australia to conduct a literature most popular tribal tattoos search for information on the head. She successfully traced the head in December ocean tribal tattoo 1993, and in April the following year, Colbung applied for permission to exhume it under phoenix bird tattoos tribal Section 25 of the Burial Act 1857. pictures of tribal steeler tattoos Home Office regulations required next of kin consent for the remains of the 22 babies to pictures of tribal sun tattoos be disturbed, but Colbung's solicitors requested that this condition be waived on pictures of tribal tattoos that means eternaty grounds that the exhumation would be of great personal significance to sagittarius tribal tattoo Yagan's living relatives, and great national shoulder blade tribal wing tattoos importance to Australia.

Meanwhile, divisions in the Perth Noongar community began to show, with Colbung's role in shoulder tribal tattoos the repatriation questioned by a number of elders, and one Noongar registering a complaint with the sleeve tattoo tribal Liverpool City Council over Colbung's involvement. There was much acrimonious debate within the Noongar sleeve tribal tattoos community about steve-o tribal tattoo who had the best cultural qualifications to take possession of superman tattoo tribal the head, some of which was publicly aired. On 25 July a public meeting was held tattoo cross tribal in Perth, where all parties agreed to put aside their differences and tattoo tribal designes co-operate to ensure that the repatriation was a "national success". A Yagan Steering Committee was established to co-ordinate the tattoo tribal ideas repatriation, and Colbung's application was allowed to proceed.

In January 1995 the tattoos black tribal flash Home Office advised Colbung tattoos of tribal butterflies and fairies that it was unable to waive the necessity of obtaining next of kin tattoos tribal and skin rips consent for the exhumation. It then contacted the five relatives whose tattoos tribal gothic addresses were known, receiving unconditional consent from only one. Accordingly, tattoos tribal lower back on 30 June 1995, Colbung and the other interested parties were advised that the application for exhumation had been rejected.[14]

The Yagan Steering Committee then met temporary arm bands tribal tattoos on 21 September and decided to proceed by lobbying Australian and British politicians for support. This approach led to an invitation the rock tribal tattoo for Colbung to visit the United Kingdom at the tribal angel tattoo British government's expense. Colbung arrived tribal aries tattoo in the United Kingdom on 20 May 1997. His visit tribal biomechanics tattoo attracted substantial media coverage and increased the political pressure on the British tribal cat tattoos Government. It also allowed him to secure the support of the Prime Minister of Australia, John Howard, after gate crashing the Prime Minister's tribal crab tattoo June visit to the United Kingdom.

Exhumation

Main article: tribal dawn temporary tattoo Exhumation of Yagan's head
A horizontal colour contour map of ground conductivity of Yagan's tribal dove tattoos grave site, showing an anomaly in the electromagnetic signature caused tribal eyes back tattoo by metal artifacts buried with Yagan's head.

While Colbung was tribal face tattoo in the United Kingdom, Martin and Richard Bates were engaged to undertake a geophysical survey of the grave site. Using electromagnetic and tribal faerie tattoos ground penetrating radar techniques, they identified an approximate position of the box that suggested tribal finger tattoos it could be accessed from the side via the tribal gecko tattoos adjacent plot. A report of the survey was tribal hummingbird tattoo passed to the Home Office, prompting further discussions tribal ink tattoo between the British and Australian Governments.[15]

Of concern to the Home Office were tribal lettering tattoos an undisclosed number of letters that it had received objecting to Colbung's tribal scorpian tattoos involvement in the repatriation process; it therefore sought assurances from tribal spider tattoo the Australian Government that Colbung was a correct applicant. In response Colbung asked his elders to ask tribal sun tattoo flash the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission (ATSIC) to tell tribal superman tattoos the British Home Office that he was the correct applicant. ATSIC then convened a tribal tattoo crosses meeting in Perth at which it was again resolved that Colbung's application could proceed.

Colbung continued to tribal tattoo crow press for the exhumation, asking tribal tattoo mother and daughter that it be performed before the 164th anniversary of Yagan's death on tribal tattoo on shoulder 11 July, so that the anniversary could be the tribal tattoo the rock gq occasion of a celebration. His request was not met, and on the anniversary of Yagan's death, Colbung conducted tribal tattoo upper back a short memorial service at the burial plot in Everton. He returned tribal tattoos have meaning to Australia empty-handed on 15 July.

The exhumation tribal tattoos on lower back of Yagan's head eventually proceeded, without Colbung's knowledge, by excavating six feet american flag tribal tattoo down the side of the grave, then tunnelling horizontally to the location of the box. Thus the exhumation was performed ancient tribal tattoos without disturbing any armband tribal tattoo flash other remains. The following day, a forensic palaeontologist from the University of Bradford positively identified the skull as Yagan's by correlating the fractures blue tribal tattoo with those described in Pettigrew's report.[15] The skull was then kept cancer surviver tribal tattoo cat tribal tattoo at the museum until 29 August, when it was handed over to the Liverpool City Council.

Repatriation

On 27 August 1997, a delegation of cross picture tattoo tribal Noongars consisting of Ken Colbung, Robert Bropho, Richard Wilkes and cross tattoo tribal Mingli Wanjurri-Nungala arrived in the UK to collect Yagan's head. The crucifix tribal tattoo delegation was to have fire dept tribal tattoo been larger, but Commonwealth funding was withdrawn at the last minute. The handover fire tribal tattoos of Yagan's skull was further delayed, however, when a Noongar flash tribal sun tattoos named Corrie Bodney applied to the Supreme Court of Western Australia for an free rose tribal tattoo designs injunction against the handover. Claiming that his family group has sole responsibility for Yagan's remains, Bodney declared the exhumation illegal and denied the free tribal tattoo designs for feet existence of any tradition or belief necessitating the head's exhumation and removal full tribal tattoo to Australia. Another Noongar, Albert Corunna, then came forward with a hawaii tribal tattoos claim to be Yagan's closest living iban tribal tattoos relative. The Supreme Court had no power to irish tribal tattoo grant an emergency injunction binding the Government of the United Kingdom, so jesus tribal tattoo instead it asked the Government of Western Australia to object formally to the handing over of Yagan's remains. The United jesus tribal tattoos Kingdom Government responded favourably to look for tribal crosses tattoos the objection, agreeing to withhold the head until the injunction application had been considered. On 29 August lower back tribal design tattoos the court rejected the injunction application, lowerback tribal tattooes on the grounds that Bodney had previously agreed to the current arrangements, and on the evidence of another Noongar elder mario tribal tattoos and an anthropologist, both of whom refuted Bodney's moon tribal tattoo claim to sole responsibility.[14]

Yagan's skull was handed over to the more tribal tattoos Noongar delegation at a ceremony at the Liverpool Town Hall on 31 August 1997. In accepting the skull, Colbung new zealand tribal tattoos made comments that allegedly linked pictures of free tattoo designs of tribal butterflies Yagan's death with the death of Princess Diana, who had died that day:

Because the Poms did the wrong pictures of tribal lower back tattoos thing they have to suffer. They red and black tribal heart tattoo have to learn too, to live with it as we did and that religious tribal celtic tattoos is how nature goes.

Colbung's comments prompted ring of fire and tribal tattoos a media furore throughout Australia, with newspapers receiving many letters from the public sick tribal tattoo expressing shock and anger at the comments. Colbung later claimed that his comments had been misinterpreted.

On its south american tribal tattoo designs return to Perth, Yagan's head continued to be a source of controversy and conflict. Responsibility for reburial of star and tribal tattoos tahitit tribal tattoo the head was given to a "Committee for the Reburial of Yagan's Kaat", headed by Richard Wilkes. However the tattoo panther tribal reburial was delayed by disputes between elders over the burial location, mainly due to uncertainty of tattoo pictures tribal the whereabouts of the rest of his body, and disagreement about the tattoo stencils for sale tribal one year membership importance of burying the tattoos and tribal and stars head with the body.

A number of attempts were made to locate the remains of Yagan's body, which are believed to be tattoos tribal bulls temporary tattoos tribal rose on a property on West Swan Road in the outer Perth suburb of Belhus. A remote the rock's tribal tattoo sensing survey of the site was carried out in tiger tribal tattoos 1998, but no remains were found. An archaeological survey of the traditioal tribal tattoos area was undertaken two years later, but this also was unsuccessful.[14] Disputes then arose tribal blue rose tattoos over whether the head could be buried separately from the body. Wilkes has claimed that it can, so long as tribal capricorn tattoo it is placed where Yagan was tribal celtic bear claw tattoo killed, so that Dreamtime spirits can reunite the remains.[16]

In 1998 tribal chest and rib tattoos the Western Australian Planning Commission and the tribal clover tattoos Department of Aboriginal Affairs jointly published a document entitled Yagan's Gravesite Master Plan, which tribal dolphins tattoo discussed "matters of ownership, management, development and future use" of the property on which Yagan's remains are tribal dragon tattoo designes believed to be buried. Under consideration was the possibility of turning the site tribal dragon tattooes into an indigenous burial site, to be tribal flower picture tattoo managed by the Metropolitan Cemeteries Board.

To date, Yagan's head remains unburied. It tribal fox tattoo spent some time in storage in a bank vault, tribal full sleeve tattoo before being handed over to forensics experts who reconstructed a model from it. Since then it has been in storage at tribal hawaiian tattoos Western Australia's state mortuary. Plans to tribal honu tattoo re-bury the head have been deferred or delayed numerous times, and this has caused tribal irish tattoos ongoing conflict between Noongar groups. The reburial committee have been accused of acting against tribal maltese cross fire tattoo the wishes of the Noongar community, by deferring its burial in the hope tribal ruler tattoo temporary of making money out of it with elaborate parks and monuments. Richard Wilkes, however, says tribal ruler tattoo temporary uk that the committee has direct kinship lines to Yagan, tribal sea turtle tattoos and wants the head to be buried properly, but has been delayed by searches tribal symbols meanings for tattoos and burial site negotiations. Alternative proposals have tribal tattoo about been put forward: for example, early in 2006 Ken Colbung called for the head tribal tattoo bear to be cremated and the ashes scattered on the Swan River.[17] In June 2006, tribal tattoo full sleeve flash tribal tattoo printouts Wilkes stated that the head would be buried by July 2007.[18]

Cultural references

Alas Poor tribal tattoo red Yagan

Main article: Alas Poor Yagan
The final two tribal tattoo strength frames of Dean Alston's 1997 cartoon tribal tattoos & fairy silhottes Alas Poor Yagan.

On 6 September 1997 The West Australian published a Dean Alston cartoon entitled tribal tattoos and upper and back Alas Poor Yagan,[19] which was critical of the fact that the return of Yagan's tribal tattoos flash; panther head had become a source of conflict between Noongars instead tribal tattoos for lower back of fostering unity. The cartoon could also be interpreted as insulting tribal tattoos shaded aspects of Noongar culture, and casting aspersions on the motives and legitimacy of indigenous Australians with tribal thunderbird tattoo tribal tigers tattoos mixed racial heritage. The content of the cartoon offended many indigenous Australians, and a group of Noongar elders complained about tribal tomahawk tattoos the cartoon to the Human Rights and Equal Opportunity tribal wildlife tattoos Commission. The commission ruled that the cartoon made inappropriate references to Noongar tribal wolve tattoos beliefs but did not breach racial discrimination law.[20] This ruling was upheld on appeal tribal yellow rose tattoos by the Federal Court of Australia.[21]

Yagan's statue

Yagan statue, Heirisson Island.

From the mid-1970s, members of the Noongar community lobbied for the erection alligator tribal tattoo of a statue of Yagan as part american native tribal tattoos of the WAY 1979 sesquicentennial celebrations. Their requests were refused, however, after then Premier of Western Australia armband tattoos italian or tribal Sir Charles Court was advised by local historians that Yagan was not important enough armband tattoos tribal to warrant a statue. Colbung claims "Court was more interested in spending tax payers' money athentic tribal tattoos on refurbishing the badly neglected burial place of Captain James Stirling, WA's background tribal tattoos first governor."[13] Despite this setback, the Noongar community persisted, establishing a Yagan Committee and running a number of bear tattoo tribal fund-raising drives. Eventually, sufficient funds were collected to allow the commissioning of best tribal tattoos Australian sculptor Robert Hitchcock to create black and white tribal tattoos a statue. The result was a life-size statue in bronze, depicting Yagan standing naked with black tribal sleeve tattoos a spear held across his shoulders. Hitchcock's statue of Yagan was officially opened by blakcfoot tribal tattoos Yagan Committee chairperson Elizabeth Hanson on 11 September 1984. It stands on Heirisson Island bull tribal tattoo in the Swan River near Perth.

In 1997, within a week of the return of Yagan's head to celebrity lower back tribal tattoos Perth, vandals beheaded the statue celtic knot tribal armband tattoos and stole the head. After restoration of the statue, it was beheaded for a second circular tribal tattoos time. Since receiving a second restoration, it has been left colorless tribal tattoos unharmed. To date, the Western Australia Police have not cross tattoos with tribal succeeded in identifying the vandals or recovering the bronze cross tribal tattoo heads, although credit for the act was anonymously claimed by a "British loyalist" crow tribal celtic tattoo as an act of retaliation for Colbung's comments about Princess Diana.

A black and white scan of the cover of Mary Durack's 1976 children's novel Yagan of dragon tattoo temporary tribal the Bibbulmun, with illustrations by Revel Cooper.

In 2002 Member of the dwayne johnson tribal tattoo Western Australian Legislative english tribal tattoos Assembly Janet Woollard called for the statue's private parts to be covered up, but nothing was done. In November 2005 Richard fillipino tribal tattoo Wilkes again called for the statue's private fire tattoo tribal parts to be covered, on the grounds that such a depiction would be more flower picture tattoo tribal historically accurate as Yagan would have worn a flower tattoo tribal covering for most of the year. Also under consideration is the free how to design a tribal leg tattoo creation of a new statue with a head shape that accords better with free how to design a tribal tattoo the forensic reconstruction of Yagan's head.[22]

Literature and film

Mary Durack free pictures of tribal tattoos published a fictionalised account of Yagan's life in her 1964 children's novel The Courteous Savage: free tattoo designs of tribal butterfly lower back tattos Yagan of the Swan River.[23] When reissued free tribal flower tattoo flash in 1976, it was renamed Yagan of the Bibbulmun[24] because the word "Savage" was by then free tribal lower back tattoo designs considered racist.

The repeated beheading free tribal tattoo flash download of Yagan's statue in 1997 prompted indigenous writer Archie Weller to write galleries of tribal sun tattoos a short story entitled Confessions of a Headhunter. Weller later worked with film director Sally Riley to galsai tribal tattoo adapt the story into a script[25], and hindu tribal tattoos in 2000 a 35 minute movie, also named Confessions of a Headhunter, was released[26]. Directed how to design a tribal tattoo by Sally Riley, the how to draw tribal tattoo movie won Best Short Fiction Film at the 2000 AFI Awards. The following year incan tribal tattoos the script won the Script Award in the 2001 Western Australian Premier's Book Awards.

In 2002 the South African-born Australian poet John indian tribal tattoos what they mean Mateer published his fourth collection of poems, lower back butterfly tribal tattoo entitled Loanwords.[27] The collection is divided into four sections, of which the third, In the lower back flower tribal tattoos Presence of a Severed Head, has Yagan as its subject.

Other cultural references

In September 1989 an early maturing cultivar of barley, bred by male tribal tattoos the Western Australian Department of Agriculture mayan tribal tattoos for performance on sandy soils, was released under the name "Hordeum vulgare (Barley) mori new zealand tribal art tattoos c.v. Yagan" [28]. Commonly referred myan tribal tattoo to simply as "Yagan", the cultivar is named for Yagan, continuing a tradition of labeling Western names tribal tattoo Australian grain cultivars after historic people of Western Australia.

See also

  • Pemulwuy, another native american tribal tattoo design indigenous Australian whose severed head was sent to England.

References

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Yagan
  1. ^ Bourke, Michael (1987). “Chapter 3: phoenix tribal tattoos Yagan 'The Patriot' and 'Governor' Weeip”, On the Swan. Nedlands, Western Australia: University of Western Australia Press. ISBN 0-85564-258-0.
  2. ^ piccs of tribal tattoos a b Hallam, Sylvia J. polyeaisan tribal tattoos and Tilbrook, Lois (1990). Aborigines of the Southwest Region, 1829–1840 (The Bicentennial Dictionary of Western Australians, religous tribal tattoos Volume VIII). Nedlands, rib cage tribal tattoos Western Australia: University of Western Australia Press. ISBN 0-85564-296-3.
  3. ^ a b Green, Neville (1981). “Aborigines and robbie williams tribal tattoo White Settlers in the Nineteenth Century”, Stannage, Tom A New History of Western Australia. Nedlands, Western Australia: runic tribal tattoos University of Western Australia sea turtle tribal tattoo Press, 72–123. ISBN 0-85564-170-3.
  4. ^ Green, Neville south american tribal tattoos (1979). “Yagan, the Patriot”, Hunt, Lyall (ed) Westralian Portraits. Nedlands, Western Australia: University special best tribal tattoo of Western Australia Press. ISBN 0-85564-157-6.
  5. ^ a b Green, Neville (1984). Broken spears: Aborigines and Europeans in the Southwest of Australia. Perth, Western sun tribal tattoo Australia: Focus Education Services. ISBN 0-9591828-1-0.
  6. ^ The Perth Gazette, 16 March superman tribal tattoos 1833.
  7. ^ The Perth Gazette, 2 March 1833.
  8. ^ a b Hasluck, Alexandra (1961). "Yagan, the tattoo tribal flash Patriot". Early Days: Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Western tattoo tribal suns Australian Historical Society (Inc.) V (VII): 33–48.
  9. ^ a b Moore, George Fletcher (1884). Diary of Ten tattoo tribal women Years Eventful Life of an Early Settler in Western tattoos tribal crosses Australia, and also a Descriptive Vocabulary of the Language of the tattoos tribal fairies Aborigines. London: M. Walbrook. Facsimile Edition published in 1978 by Nedlands, Western Australia: University of taurus tribal tattoos Western Australia Press. thailand tribal tattoos ISBN 0-85564-137-1.
  10. ^ The Perth Gazette, 13 July 1833.
  11. ^ a b Turnbull, Paul (1998). tribal angel wing tattoo ""Outlawed Subjects": The Procurement and Scientific Uses of Australian Aboriginal Heads, ca. 1803–1835". Eighteenth-Century Life 22 (1): tribal astrological signs for tattoos 156–171.
  12. ^ Dale, Robert (1834). Descriptive Account of the Panoramic View &c. of King George's Sound and the Adjacent Country. London: J. Cross tribal black widow tattoos & R. Havell.
  13. ^ a b Colbung, Ken (1996). Yagan: The Swan River tribal bull tattoo "Settlement". Australia tribal bytterfly tattoos Council for the Arts.
  14. ^ a b c Fforde, Cressida (2002). “Chapter tribal claddagh tattoo 18: Yagan”, Fforde, Cressida, Hubert, Jane and Turnbull, Paul (eds) The Dead and Their tribal clover tattoo Possessions: Repatriation in Principle, Policy, and Practice. London: Routledge, 229–241. ISBN 0-415-23385-2.
  15. ^ tribal draon tattoo free designs a b Archaeological Geophysics: Yagan's Head. Retrieved on December 14, 2005.
  16. ^ Lampathakis, tribal eyes tattoo Paul (2005). Hunt for Yagan narrows. The Sunday Times, 6 March 2005.
  17. ^ Press tribal fish tattoos Cuts. National Indigenous Times, Issue 97, 26 January 2006.
  18. ^ Philip, Martin (2006). Yagan tribal flames lower back tattoos waits for final resting place. tribal flower tattoo flash The West Australian, 26 June 2006.
  19. ^ Alston, Dean (1997). tribal frog tattoo meaning Alas Poor Yagan. The West Australian, 6 September 1997.
  20. ^ Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission (2001). Corunna v tribal frog tattoos West Australian Newspapers (2001) EOC 93-146. 12 April tribal full arm tattoo sleeves 2001.
  21. ^ Federal Court of Australia (2004). Bropho v Human Rights & Equal Opportunity Commission [2004] FCAFC tribal gecko tattoo 16. 6 February 2004.
  22. ^ Kent, Melissa (2005). Yagan centre of tribal gemini sign tattoos cover-up bid. The West Australian, 24 November 2005.
  23. ^ Durack, tribal guitar tattoo Mary (1964). Courteous Savage: Yagan of the Swan River. West Melbourne, Victoria: Thomas Nelson (Australia) tribal heart and flower tattoos Limited.
  24. ^ Durack, Mary (1976). Yagan of the Bibbulmun. West tribal image tattoo Melbourne, Victoria: Thomas Nelson (Australia) Limited. ISBN 0-17-001996-9.
  25. ^ Riley, Sally and tribal leo tattoos Weller, Archie (1999). Confessions of a Headhunter. Surrey Hills, New South Wales: Scarlett Pictures.
  26. ^ Australian Film Commission Film Database: Confessions of a Headhunter. Retrieved on January 19, 2006.
  27. ^ Mateer, John (2002). Loanwords. Fremantle, Western Australia: Fremantle Arts Centre Press. ISBN 1-86368-359-3.
  28. ^ Portman, P. (1989). "Register of Australian Winter Cereal Cultivars. Hordeum vulgare (Barley) cv. Yagan". Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 29 (1): 143.
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