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sensor in the news

CMOS sensor enables ultraslim camera phones 

Electronic Engineering Times Asia - Oct 08 2:17 PM
OmniVision's sixth-generation CameraChip sensor enables a 25 percent thinner camera module, making it a good fit for ultraslim handset designs.

Answer when knock sensor sends warning 
Bradenton Herald - Oct 06 12:36 AM
Dear Tom and Ray: I have a 1999 Subaru Outback that I love very dearly. Last week, the engine light came on, so I took it to my mechanic. He referred me to the dealer, because my "knock sensor" was off. He warned me that this would be expensive to fix. I am wondering if this is a critical repair. What is a knock sensor? Thanks. - Edith

1993 Renault Clio rsi from UK and Ireland 
Carsurvey.org - Oct 08 10:50 AM
What things have gone wrong with the car? Engine immobiliser kept on cutting in when parked up and couldn't start the car for hours, leaking roof, new break hoses, induction pipe split, idle control valve broke, fan sensor failed resulting in car coming to a halt with smoke everywhere.

In a Flash From the Past, a Digital Camera With Knobs 
New York Times - Oct 08 9:11 PM
Serious photographers will appreciate the inner beauty of the Canon PowerShot G7?s professional-level abilities.

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- oxygen sensor

- sensors

Contents

  • 1 Overview
  • 2 Types
    • 2.1 Thermal
    • 2.2 Electromagnetic
    • 2.3 Mechanical
    • 2.4 Chemical
    • 2.5 Optical ensor zensor xensor sensors and radiation
      • 2.5.1 Ionising radiation
      • 2.5.2 Non-ionising radiation
    • 2.6 Acoustic
    • 2.7 Other oxygen sensor types
      • 2.7.1 Non Initialized systems
      • 2.7.2 Initialized systems
  • 3 Classification driveway sensor of measurement errors
    • 3.1 Resolution
  • 4 Biological
  • 5 See proximity sensor also
  • 6 External rtd sensor links
Distinguish from censure and censer and censor.

Overview

Most sensors are electrical or electronic, although other types exist. A sensor sensor is a type of transducer. Sensors are either direct indicating (e.g. a mercury driveway motion sensor thermometer or electrical meter) or are paired driveway sensor alarm with an indicator (perhaps indirectly through an analog to digital converter, a computer driveway sensor alarms and a display) so that the value sensed becomes human readable. In addition to other applications, sensors are heavily inductive proximity sensor used in medicine, industry and robotics. Technical progress allows more and more sensors motion sensor to be manufactured with MEMS technology. In most cases this magnetic proximity sensor offers the potential to reach a much higher sensitivity. See also MEMS sensor generations.


Types

Since a significant change involves an industral proximity sensor exchange of energy, sensors can be classified according to the type of energy transfer that they detect.

Thermal

  • temperature sensors: thermometers, thermocouples, temperature sensitive resistors ir proximity sensor (thermistors and resistance temperature detectors), bi-metal thermometers and thermostats
  • heat sensors: bolometer, calorimeter

Electromagnetic

  • electrical resistance sensors: ohmmeter, multimeter
  • electrical current sensors: galvanometer, ammeter
  • electrical voltage proximity sensor surplus sensors: leaf electroscope, voltmeter
  • electrical power sensors: watt-hour meters
  • magnetism sensors: magnetic compass, fluxgate compass, magnetometer, Hall effect device,
  • metal detectors

Mechanical

  • pressure sensors: photoelectric proximity sensor altimeter, barometer, barograph, pressure gauge, air speed indicator, rate of climb indicator, variometer
  • gas and liquid prox sensors flow sensors: flow sensor, anemometer, flow meter, gas meter, water proximity sensor covers and accessories meter, mass flow sensor
  • mechanical sensors: acceleration sensor, position sensor, selsyn, switch, strain gauge

Chemical

Chemical sensors detect the presence of specific chemicals or classes of chemicals. mass air flow sensor Examples include oxygen sensors, also known as lambda sensors, ion-selective electrodes, pH glass electrodes, and redox symptoms of a bad throttle position sensor electrodes.

Optical and system sensor radiation

  • electromagnetic time-of-flight. Generate an electromagnetic impulse, broadcast it, then measure the time a reflected pulse takes to return. Commonly known as - RADAR automatic sensor faucets (Radio Detection And Ranging) are now accompanied by the analogous sensor faucets LIDAR (Light Detection And Ranging. See sensor faucet following line), all being electromagnetic waves. Acoustic sensors are a special banner sensors case in that a pressure transducer is used to generate a compression wave in a fluid medium (air or water)
  • light time-of-flight. Used in modern humidity sensors and applications surveying equipment, a short pulse of light is emitted and returned by position sensor a retroreflector. The return time of the pulse is proportional to residential sensor faucets the distance and is related to atmospheric oxygen sensors density in a predictable way.

Ionising radiation

  • radiation sensors: Geiger counter, dosimeter, Scintillation counter, Neutron detection
  • subatomic particle sensors: Particle detector, scintillator, Wire honda o2 sensor chamber, cloud chamber, bubble chamber. See Category:Particle_detectors

Non-ionising radiation

  • light sensors, sensor kitchen faucets or photodetectors, including semiconductor devices such as photocells, photodiodes, phototransistors, CCDs, and Image sensors; wireless sensors vacuum tube devices like photo-electric tubes, photomultiplier tubes; and mechanical instruments such vehicle speed sensor as the Nichols radiometer.
  • infra-red sensor, especially used as occupancy sensor for throttle position sensor lighting and environmental controls.
  • proximity sensor- A type of distance sensor sales jobs southeast sensor but less sophisticated. Only detects a specific proximity. May be light sensor optical - combination of a photocell and LED or laser. Applications in cell phones, paper detector in photocopiers, knock sensor auto power standby/shutdown mode in notebooks and other devices. gems sensors May employ a magnet and a Hall effect device.
  • scanning laser- A narrow beam of laser light is scanned over the scene tundra o2 sensor by a mirror. A photocell sensor photo sensor located at an offset responds when the beam is reflected from an object to the sensor, whence parking sensor the distance is calculated by triangulation.
  • focus. A large aperture lens may be vibration sensors focused by a servo system. The distance to an in-focus scene element may be determined nissan knock sensor by the lens setting.
  • binocular. Two images gathered on a known baseline are brought into coincidence by home security systems motion sensors alarm a system of mirrors and prisms. The adjustment is speedometer sensor used to determine distance. Used in some cameras temperature sensor (called range-finder cameras) and on a larger scale in early battleship range-finder
  • interferometry. Interference fringes between transmitted and reflected lightwaves produced backup sensor by a coherent source such as map sensor a laser are counted and the distance is calculated. Capable of extremely high precision.
  • Scintillometers measure atmospheric optical disturbances.

Acoustic

  • sound sensors: microphones, hydrophones, motion sensor light seismometers.

acoustic: uses ultrasound time-of-flight mass air sensor echo return. Used in mid 20th century polaroid cameras and subaru knock sensor applied also to robotics. Even older systems like Fathometers (and fish finders) and motion sensor lights other 'Tactical Active' Sonar (Sound Navigation And Ranging) systems in naval applications which mostly use pressure sensor audible sound frequencies.

Other types

  • motion sensors: radar gun, speedometer, tachometer, odometer, occupancy sensor, turn coordinator
  • orientation sensors: gyroscope, artificial horizon, o2 sensor ring laser gyroscope
  • distance sensor (noncontacting) portable handheld sensor Several technologies can be applied to sense distance: magnetostriction

Non Initialized systems

  • Gray code strip oxygen sensor simulator or wheel- a number of photodetectors can sense a pattern, creating a binary number. The gray code occupancy sensors is a mutated pattern that ensures that only one bit of information changes with each measured step, pda pressure sensors thus avoiding ambiguities.

Initialized systems

These require starting from a known distance and hall effect sensor accumulate incremental changes in measurements.

  • Quadrature wheel- An disk-shaped optical mask is how sensors work driven by a gear train. Two photocells detecting light passing through the mask motion sensor battery powered light can determine a partial revolution of the mask and position sensors the direction of that rotation.
  • whisker sensor- A type of touch sensor and proximity toyota tundra mass airflow sensor and wires sensor.

Classification of measurement errors

A good sensor obeys the following rules:

  1. the sensor bosch oxygen sensor should be sensitive to the measured property
  2. the sensor should be insensitive to any other property
  3. the sensor should not influence the measured denso o2 sensor property

In the ideal situation, the output signal of a direction sensor sensor is exactly proportional to the value of the level sensors measured property. The gain is then defined as the ratio between output signal mass airflow sensor and measured property. For example, if a sensor measures temperature and has a voltage output, the gain is a back up sensor constant with the unit crankshaft sensor replacement for cadillac [V/K].

If the sensor is not ideal, several types of deviations can be observed:

  • The gain may in practice differ from 1999 ford taurus vehicle speed sensor the value specified. This is called a gain error.
  • Since the crankshaft position sensor range of the output signal is always limited, the output signal will eventually clip when the deepwater coast guard avionics sensors measured property exceeds the limits. The full scale heat sensors range defines the outmost values of the measured property where the sensor parking sensors errors are within the specified range.
  • If the output signal is not zero wireless sensor networks when the measured property is zero, the sensor has an offset or bias. This is defined as banner sensor the output of the sensor at zero input.
  • If the gain is not constant, this is called nonlinearity. Usually this ultrasonic sensors is defined by the amount the backup sensors output differs from ideal behaviour over the full range of the sensor, often dpfe sensor noted as a percentage of the full range.
  • If the deviation how to check wheel speed sensors without a scan tool is caused by a rapid change of the measured property over time, there is a dynamic error. Often, pir sensor board this behaviour is described with a bode plot showing gain error saturn map sensor and phase shift as function of the frequency of a periodic input sensor systems signal.
  • If the output signal slowly changes independent of the measured wireless torque sensors property, this is defined as drift.
  • Long term drift usually indicates a slow degradation of sensor properties over a gm mass air flow sensor long period of time.
  • Noise is a random deviation of the signal that varies in infrared sensor time.
  • Hysteresis is an error caused by the fact that the sensor not instantly follows mercruiser temperature sensor the change of the property being measured, and therefore crank sensor involves the history of the measured property.
  • If the sensor has a digital output, linear heat sensor the signal is discrete and is essentially an approximation of the measured omron sensors property. The approximation error is also called digitization error.
  • If the signal is monitored digitally, limitation of the sampling frequency also causes a dynamic maf sensor error.
  • The sensor may to some extent be sensitive for other moisture sensor properties than the property being measured. For example, most sensors are influenced proximity sensors by the temperature of their environment.

All these speed sensor deviations can be classified as systematic errors or random errors. Systematic errors can sometimes be compensated for by means of wireless security sensors 2b white paper some kind of calibration strategy. Noise is granatelli mass air sensors a random error that can be reduced by signal processing, such as filtering, usually at the expense of light sensors the dynamic behaviour of the on a monitor, what is an ambient light sensor sensor.

Resolution

The resolution of a sensor is the smallest change it can ph sensor detect in the quantity that it is measuring. Often in a digital display, the least significant digit will fluctuate, indicating that changes of plug and play sensors that magnitude are only just resolved. The resolution is related to the intake air temperature sensor precision with which the measurement is made. For example, motion sensor sprinkler a scanning probe (a fine tip near a surface collects an electron tunnelling sick sensors current) can resolve atoms and molecules.

Biological

All living organisms contain biological sensors with functions similar to those of the suzuki lambda sensor mechanical devices described. Most of these are specialized cells transmission range sensor that are sensitive to:

  • light, motion, temperature, magnetic fields, gravity, humidity, vibration, velocity sensor pressure, electrical fields, sound, and other physical aspects of the external wireless sensor environment;
  • physical aspects of the internal environment, such as stretch, motion of the organism, and wireless sensor networks services csc motorola security position of appendages (proprioception);
  • an enormous array of environmental molecules, including toxins, nutrients, and pheromones;
  • many aspects of the internal eddy current position sensor metabolic milieu, such as glucose level, oxygen level, or osmolality;
  • an equally varied ford f150 door ajar sensor range of internal signal molecules, such as hormones, neurotransmitters, and ford oxygen sensor simulator cytokines;
  • and even the differences between proteins of the lexus rx300 knock sensor organism itself and of the environment or alien creatures.

Artificial sensors that mimic biological sensors by using a biological sensitive component, are called biosensors.

The human senses networking sensor network simulator are examples of specialized neuronal sensors. See Sense.

See also

  • Actuator
  • Data acquisition
  • Data acquisition system
  • Data logger
  • Detection theory
  • Hydrogen microsensor
  • Lateral line
  • Limen
  • List of sensors
  • Machine olfaction
  • Receiver operating characteristic
  • Sensor network

External links

  • Type of sensors and their working
  • Tutorial on interpreting and analyzing recorded sensor data
  • SensorWiki - Sensor displacement sensors information tailored for music technologists.
  • Federal Standard 1037C, August 7, 1996: transducer
  • American National Standard ford ride height sensor for Telecommunications - Telecom Glossary 2000: sensor
  • SensEdu; how sensors work
  • "Overview of Sensors gem sensors and Needs for Environmental Monitoring" Clifford K. Ho, Alex Robinson, David R. Miller and Mary J. hall effect sensors Davis Sensors 2005, 5, 4-37 [1] (open access) article
  • The art pir sensor of detection: UGS systems make a quantum leap sensor hydrogen sulfide in reliability and utility International Defence Review, 3 August 2006
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