- For the band, see Crash Test Dummies. For the series of toys, see The Incredible Crash Dummies
Crash test dummies have crashtest saved countless thousands crash tet of lives.
Crash test dummies are full-scale replicas of human beings, weighted and articulated to crash test dummies simulate the behavior of a human body in a motor-vehicle collision, and instrumented crash test to record as much data as possible on variables such as speed of impact, crushing force, bending, crash test ratings folding, or torque of the body, and deceleration crash test dummies mp3 rates during a collision. In modern times, they remain indispensable in the development of new crash tests makes and models of all types of vehicles, from family sedans to crash test dummy fighter aircraft. This article focuses on the role of crash test dummies in preventing injury to crash test results automobile occupants.
- 1 The crash test dumies need for testing
- 2 Cadaver testing
- 3 Volunteer lexus crash test testing
- 4 Animal testing
- 5 Dummy evolution
- 6 Hybrid car crash tests III family
- 7 Test process
- 8 Hybrid's scion xb crash test successors
- 9 Future of automobile safety crash test results the dummy
- 10 Popular culture
- 11 See crash test dumbies also
- 12 Footnotes
- 13 References
The need for testing
On August 31, crash test voutas 1869, Mary Ward became what is believed to be the first recorded victim of an automobile accident, when auromotive crash rating test she was thrown out of a motor vehicle and killed in Parsonstown, Ireland. Some years later, crash test videos on September 13, 1899, Henry Bliss entered the history books as North America's mmmm crash test dummy lyric first motor vehicle fatality when he was hit stepping off a New York City trolley. Since that time, crash test dummies lyrics in excess of 20 million people worldwide have lost their lives to motor suv crash tests vehicle accidents.
The need for a means of analysing and mitigating the effects of motor vehicle accidents government crash tests on human bodies was felt very soon after the commercial production r500 rear impact crash test of smart car crash test automobiles began in the late 1890s, and by the 1930s, with the automobile a common part acura crash test of daily life, the number of motor vehicle deaths was becoming a serious issue. Death rates had surpassed 15.6 car crash test dummies fatalities per 100 million vehicle-miles and crash test rating were continuing to climb; vehicle designers saw this as a clear indication it was time to do some research smart car crash test video on ways to make their products safer.
In 1930, carseat crash test the interior of a car was not a safe place even crash test dummies superman in a low-speed collision. Dashboards were made crash test video of rigid metal, steering columns were non-collapsible, and protruding knobs, 2007 yaris crash test buttons, and levers were ubiquitous. Seat belts were unheard-of, and in a frontal collision, passengers hurled car crash test ratings through the windshield stood very little chance of avoiding serious injury or death. The vehicle body crash test dummies superman's song itself was rigid, and impact forces were transmitted directly to the vehicle occupants. ford explorer sport crash test As late as auto crash tests the 1950s, car manufacturers were on public record as saying vehicle accidents simply could not be made survivable; the crash test dummies videos forces in a crash were too great and electric car crash test the human body too frail.
Detroit's Wayne State University was the first to begin serious work on government crash test ratings collecting data on the effects of high-speed collisions on nissan versa crash test the human body. In the late 1930s, there were no reliable data on the response of the suv crash test new price list human body to vehicle crash test ratings extreme physical insult, and no effective tools existed to measure such responses. Biomechanics was a field barely in vince and larry crash test dummies its infancy. It 2005 dodge ram 3500 crash test was therefore necessary to employ two types of test subjects in order to develop initial data sets.
The first test subjects 2007 vehicle offset crash test were human cadavers. They were used to obtain fundamental information about the human automobile crash tests body's ability to withstand the crushing and tearing forces azera crash test typically experienced in a high-speed accident. To such an bus crash test end, steel ball bearings were dropped on skulls, and bodies were dumped down unused elevator shafts onto steel plates. car crash test results Cadavers fitted with crude accelerometers were strapped into automobiles and crash test rating for chevy optra subjected to head-on collisions and vehicle rollovers.
Albert King's 1995 Journal of Trauma article, "Humanitarian plane crash test Benefits of Cadaver Research on Injury Prevention", auto crash test ratings clearly states the value in human lives saved as a result of cadaver research. auto crash test results King's calculations indicate that as a result of design changes implemented up to chrysler airflow crash test 1987, cadaver research has since saved 8500 lives annually. cnn crash tests He notes that for every cadaver used, each year 61 people survive due to wearing seat belts, 147 live crash test video clips due to air bags, and 68 survive insurance crash tests windshield impact.
However, work with cadavers presented almost as many problems as it resolved. Not jeep liberty crash test ratings only were there the moral and ethical issues related to working with the 1995 cadillac deville crash test dead, but there 2005 jeep liberty crash test ratings were also research concerns. The majority of cadavers available were older Caucasian adults who had acura crash tests died non-violent deaths; they did not represent a automobile crash test demographic cross-section of accident victims. Deceased accident victims could not be employed because automotive crash tests any data that might be collected from such experimental subjects would be compromised by the cadaver's previous injuries. Since no bollard crash test two cadavers are the same, and since any specific part of car seat crash test video a cadaver could be used only once, it was extremely difficult to achieve reliable crash course for tabe test comparison data. In addition, child cadavers were not only difficult to crash test dummy head obtain, but both legal and public crash test dummy photos opinion made them effectively unusable. Moreover, as crash testing became crash test dummys more routine, suitable cadavers became increasingly scarce. As a result, biometric data were limited in extent and crash test insurance video skewed toward the older motorcycle crash test dummy white male.
Some researchers took it upon themselves to serve as crash opel crash test test subjects. Colonel John Paul Stapp USAF propelled himself over 630 mph (1010 km/h) on a rocket sled and stopped in less than a vehicle crash tests second. Lawrence Patrick, a now-retired Wayne State 1999 ford escort crash test University professor, endured some 400 rides 2003, volvo, v70, crash test on a rocket sled in order to test the effects of rapid deceleration on the human 94 chev lumina crash tests body. He and his students allowed themselves to be smashed in auto crash test insurance agency the chest with heavy metal pendulums, impacted in the face by pneumatically-driven rotary hammers, and cars rated for crash test sprayed with shattered glass to simulate window implosion. While admitting that it crash test dummies - superman made him "a little crash test dummies superman song sore," Patrick has said that the research he and his students conducted was seminal crash test dummies tape in developing mathematical models against which further research could be compared. But while data from crash test dummies the ghosts that haunt me live testing was valuable, human subjects could not withstand tests which went past crash test dummies vince and larry a certain degree of physical discomfort. To gather information about the causes and prevention of crash test dummy + buy costume injuries and fatalities would crash test dummy car require a different kind of subject.
By the crash test laboratoire mid-1950s, the bulk of the information cadaver testing could provide had been harvested. It was also necessary to collect data on accident crash test mommy survivability, research for which cadavers were woefully inadequate. In concert with crash test results of the 2006 honda civic the crash test results on 2002 nissan maxima shortage of cadavers, this need forced researchers to seek other models. A description by Mary Roach of the Eighth Stapp Car Crash and Field egg crash test Demonstration Conference shows mazda tribute crash test the direction in which research had begun to move. "We saw chimpanzees riding rocket sleds, a mazda tribute crash test rating bear on an impact swing...We observed songs for crash test dummies god shuffled his feet a pig, anesthetized and placed in a sitting position on the swing in the harness, crashed superman song crash test dummies into a deep-dish steering wheel at about 10 mph." 
One important toyota yaris crash test results research objective which could not be achieved with either cadavers or live humans was a means of truck crash test reducing the injuries caused by impalement vehicle crash tests canada on the steering column. By 1964, over a million fatalities 2001 jaguar s-type crash tests resulting from steering wheel impact had been recorded, a significant percentage of all 2006 nissan xterra crash test rating fatalities; the introduction by General Motors in the early 1960s of the collapsible steering column cut the 7th grade crash test dummies risk of steering-wheel death by fifty percent. The most commonly used animal subjects in cabin-collision 95 cadillac crash test studies were pigs, primarily ambulance + crash test because their internal structure is similar to a human's. Pigs can also be placed in a vehicle in a good auto crash test approximation of a seated human.
The ability to sit upright was an auto safety crash tests important requirement automotible crash test ratings for test animals in order that another common fatal injury among human victims, car safety crash tests decapitation, could be studied. As well, it was important for researchers to be able to career test austria examines cable car crash determine to what extent cabin design needed to be modified to ensure optimal survival cirrus design plane crash test pilot dies circumstances. For instance, a dashboard with too little padding or padding which was too stiff or too crash dummy mp3 superman test soft would not crash jeep liberty test significantly reduce head injury over a dash with no padding at all. While knobs, levers, and buttons are essential crash rating test in the operation of a vehicle, crash test cars which design modifications would best ensure that these elements did not tear or puncture victims in a crash? Rear-view mirror crash test dummies - god shuffled his feet impact is a significant occurrence in crash test dummies live a frontal collision; how should a mirror be built so crash test dummies m that it is both rigid enough to perform its task and crash test dummies mm yet of low injury risk if struck?
While work with cadavers had aroused some opposition, primarily from religious crash test dummies mmmmm institutions, it was grudgingly accepted because the crash test dummies, peter pumkin head mp3 dead, being dead, felt no pain, and the indignity of their crash test dummies- mhmm situations was directly related to easing the pain of the living. Animal research, on the other hand, aroused much crash test dummies-mmmmm greater passion. Animal rights groups crash test dummy lesson plans such as the ASPCA were vehement in their protest, and while researchers such as crash test dummy motorcycle Patrick supported animal testing because of its ability to produce reliable, crash test dummy mp3 applicable data, there was nonetheless a strong ethical unease about this process.
Although animal crash test dummy stickers test data were still more easily obtained than cadaver data, the fact that animals were not people and crash test for fj cruisers the difficulty of employing adequate internal instrumentation limited their usefulness. Animal crash test mp3 testing is no longer practiced by crash test pics any of the major automobile makers; General Motors discontinued live testing in crash test results 2006 suv's 1993 and other manufacturers followed suit shortly thereafter.
Sierra Sam tested ejection crash test symbol seats.
The information gleaned from cadaver research and crash test toys animal studies had already been put to some use in the construction of human simulacra as early crash test videos no seat belts as 1949, when "Sierra Sam" was created by Samuel W. Alderson government crash test at his Alderson Research Labs (ARL) and Sierra Engineering Co. to test aircraft iihs crash test video ejection seats and pilot restraint harnesses. This testing involved the use of insurance institute crash test results truck high acceleration to 1000 km/h (600 mph) rocket sleds, isuzu amigo crash test beyond the capability langley crash test + video of human volunteers to tolerate. In the early 1950s, Alderson and Grumman produced a lexus gs 430 crash test dummy which was used to conduct crash tests in both motor vehicles mazda mpv safety crash test results and aircraft.
The mass production of dummies afforded their use in pt cruiser crash tests many more applications.
Alderson went on to saquoia crash test produce what it called the VIP-50 series, built specifically for General Motors and Ford, but which was scion xb crash test reports also adopted by the National Bureau of Standards. Sierra followed up size of a 95th percentile crash test dummy with a competitor dummy, a model it called "Sierra Stan," but GM, superman crash test dummies mp3 who had taken over the impetus in developing a reliable and durable dummy, types of car crash tests found neither model satisfied its needs. GM engineers decided to combine the best features of the VIP vehicle crash test series and Sierra Stan, and so in 1971 Hybrid I was 2001 blazer crash tests born. Hybrid I was what is known as a "50th percentile male" 2005 dodge ram 2 dr crash test dummy. That is to say, it modeled an average 2005 nissan frontier crash test male in height, mass, and proportion. 2006 crash tests The original "Sierra Sam" was a 95th percentile male dummy (heavier and taller than 95% of human males). In cooperation with the Society 2007 caravan crash test of Automotive Engineers 2007 vehicle offset crash test video (SAE), GM shared this design, and a subsequent 5th percentile female dummy, with automobile crash test results its competitors.
Since then, considerable work has gone into creating more and more automobile crash test video clips sophisticated dummies. Hybrid II was introduced in 1972, with improved shoulder, spine, and knee responses, autuomobile crash test rating and more rigorous documentation. Hybrid II became the first dummy to comply with avalon crash test the American Federal Motor Vehicle Safety buckle up crash test dummies Standard (FMVSS) for testing of automotive lap and shoulder belts. In 1973, a california contractor law test questions 1 day crash course 50th percentile male dummy was released, and the National Highway Transportation Safety Administration (NHTSA) NHTSA undertook an agreement with General car safety crash test Motors to produce a model exceeding Hybrid centre de crash test automobile II's performance in a number of specific areas.
Though a chrysler pacifica crash test great improvement over cadavers for standardized testing purposes, Hybrid I and Hybrid II were still crash loads test procedure very crude, and their use was limited to developing and testing seat crash test 2007 mustang belt designs. A dummy was needed which would crash test car allow researchers to explore injury-reduction strategies. It was this need that pushed GM researchers to crash test dude develop the current Hybrid line, the Hybrid III family of crash test crash test dummies 500 miles dummies.
Hybrid III family
The original 50th percentile male Hybrid III's family crash test dummies caratulas expanded to include a 95th percentile crash test dummies mmmmmmmm male, 5th percentile female, and three-year-old and six-year-old child dummies.
Hybrid III, the 50th crash test dummies swimming percentile male dummy which made its first crash test dummies tape pics appearance in 1976, is the familiar crash test dummy, and crash test dummies umm he is now a family man. If he could stand upright, he would be 168 cm (5'6") tall and would crash test dummies video have a mass of 77 kg (170 lb). He occupies the driver's seat crash test dummy + costume in all the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety crash test dummy for sale (IIHS)  65 km/h (40 mph) offset frontal crash test dummy mask crash tests. He is joined by a "big brother", the 95th percentile Hybrid crash test dummy mmmm III, at 188 cm (6 ft 2 in) and 100 kg (223 lb). Ms. Hybrid crash test dummy no seat belt III is a 5th percentile female dummy, at a diminutive 152 cm (5 ft) tall and 50 kg (110 lb). The two Hybrid III child dummies represent a 21 kg (47 lb) crash test laboratoire en cor?e six year old and a 15 kg (33 lb) three year old. crash test logo The crash test police child models are very recent additions to the crash test dummy family; because so little hard data are available on the effects of accidents crash test ratings for convertibe mustang on children, crash test ratings pt cruiser and such data are very difficult to obtain, these models are based in large crash test reports and suvs part on estimates and approximations.
Every Hybrid III undergoes calibration crash test results on 2006 ford expedition prior to a crash test. Its head is removed and is dropped from 40 centimetres to test calibrate crash test results on subaru impreza the head instrumentation. Then the head and neck are reattached, set in motion, and crash test results toyota rav stopped abruptly to check for proper neck crash test safety car crashes flexure. Hybrids wear chamois leather skin; crash test vehicles the knees are struck with a metal probe to check for proper puncture. Finally, the head and neck are attached to the europan crash test safety body, ford pinto crash tests which is attached to a test platform and struck violently in the chest by a heavy pendulum gm crash test to ensure that the ribs bend and flex as they should.
When the highway traffic safety crash test dummy has been determined to be ready for testing, it is dressed entirely higway crash test in yellow, marking paint is applied to the head and knees, and calibration honda pilot crash tests marks are fastened to the side of the head to aid researchers when slow-motion films hyundai pony crash test are reviewed later. The dummy is then placed inside the test vehicle. Forty-four iihs sequoia crash test data channels located in all parts of inside a car crash test video the Hybrid III, from the head to the ankle, insurance crash test record between 30 000 and 35 000 data items in a typical 100 - 150 millisecond crash. Recorded lexus ls430 crash test in a temporary data repository in the dummy's chest, these data are downloaded to lyrics mmmm mmmm mmmm mmmm crash test dummies computer once the test is complete.
Because the Hybrid malibu crash test is a standardized data collection device, any part of a mazda crash test particular Hybrid type is interchangeable with any other. Not only can one dummy be mini cooper, crash test tested several times, but if a part should fail, it can be replaced with a new part. mmmm crash test dummies A fully-instrumented dummy is worth about €150 000.
Hybrid IIIs are designed to research the effects of frontal impacts, national highway bureau crash test ratings and are less valuable in assessing national highway crash tests the effects of other sorts of impacts, such as side impacts, rear impacts, or national highway safety crash test rollovers. After head-on collisions, the most common severe injury accident is the side impact.
The SID (Side nhtsa crash test results Impact Dummy) family of test dummies has been designed to measure rib, spine, and internal organ effects nhtsa crash tests in side collisions. nissan titan crash tests It also assesses spine and rib deceleration and compression of the chest cavity. SID is pickup crash tests the US government testing standard, EuroSID is used picture of a crash test dummy in Europe to ensure compliance with safety standards, and SID II(s) represents a 5th percentile female. BioSID pl-1 crash test is a more sophisticated version of SID and EuroSID, but is not used in a regulatory safety test car crash capacity.
BioRID is a dummy designed to assess the effects of a rear impact. sonata crash test Its primary purpose is to research Whiplash, suzuki jimny ascap crash tests and to aid designers in developing effective head and neck swimming in your ocean - crash test dummies lyrics restraints. BioRID is more sophisticated in its spinal toyota camry 2002 side crash test ratings construction than Hybrid; 24 vertebra simulators allow BioRID to assume a much more natural seating posture, transportation licensing crash course test and to demonstrate the neck movement and configuration seen in rear-end collisions.
CRABI is vehicle crash test video a child dummy used to evaluate the effectiveness of child restraint devices 100 mph crash test including seat belts and air bags. There are three models of the CRABI, representing 18-month, 12-month, 1990 honda accord crash test results and 6-month old children.
THOR is an advanced 50th percentile male dummy. The successor of 1995 mitsubishi galant crash test results 1996cadillac deville crash test Hybrid III, THOR has a more humanlike spine and pelvis, and its face contains a number of sensors which allow 1998 ford mustang crash test rating analysis of facial impacts to an accuracy currently unobtainable with other dummies. THOR's range 1998 volvo v70 crash test of sensors is also greater in quantity and sensitivity 1999 clk 230 crash test than those of Hybrid III.
THOR offers sophisticated instrumentation for assessing 1999 subaru forester crash test frontal-impacts.
Further development is needed 2000 honda civic crash test rating on dummies which can address the concern that, even though fewer 2000 honda passport crash test results lives are lost, there are still a hundred seriously injured passengers for 2002 toyota camry crash test every death, and crippling injuries to the legs and feet represent a great percentage of 2003 crash test rating lincoln navigator resultant physical impairments.
Future of the dummy
Crash test dummies have provided invaluable 2003 mercedes e320 crash test data on how human bodies 2003 nissan sentra crash test results react in crashes and have contributed greatly to improved vehicle design. While they have saved millions of lives, like cadavers and animals, 2005 bmw 3 series crash test they have reached a 2005 chrysler pacifica crash test point of reduced data return.
The largest problem with acquiring data from 2005 crash tests on 2005 subaru forester cadavers, other than their availability, was that an essential element of 2005 gmc yukon denali crash test standardized testing, repeatability, was impossible. No matter how many elements from a previous test could be reused, the cadaver had to 2006 saab 9-3 2.0t crash test rating be different each time. 2007 crash test ratings While modern test dummies have overcome this problem, testers still face essentially the same afx fx-10y crash test problem when it comes to testing the vehicle. A vehicle can amanti crash test be crashed only once; no matter how carefully the test is done, it ambulance crash test cannot be repeated exactly.
A second problem with dummies is that they are only approximately human. Forty-four data channels on a ambulance crash test video Hybrid amti crash test III is not even a remote representation of the number of data channels in a auto crash test rating living person. The mimicking of internal organs is crude at best, a fact that automobile + mid-size + crash test means that even though cadavers and animals are no longer the primary sources automobile crash test dummies of accident data, they must still be employed in the automobile crash test ratings study of soft tissue injury.
The future of crash testing has begun at the same place it all started: Wayne aveo crash test State University. King H. Yang is one of Wayne State's researchers involved best and worst compact car crash test in creating detailed computer models of human systems. Currently, computers are best truck crash test neither fast enough nor programmers skilled enough to create full-body simulations, bmw crash tests but injury analysis of individual body systems is producing reliable and encouraging results.
The advantage britax booster seats crash test ratings of the computer is that it is unbound by physical law. A cadillac crash test images virtual vehicle crashed once can cadillac deville crash test be uncrashed and then crashed again in a slightly different manner. A virtual back broken can car seats crash test rating be unbroken, the seatbelt configuration changed, and the back cars crash test car re-broken. When every variable is controllable and every event is repeatable, cegb nuclear flask crash test the need for physical experimentation is greatly reduced.
At the chevy crash test results beginning of the 21st century, legal certification of new car models is still required to be done using physical combi centre crash test dummies in physical vehicles. However, the future is almost certainly one combi centre infant car seat crash test where neither skin and bone, or plastic and steel will determine cosco alpha omega crash test safety the shape of vehicles to come. The next generation crash dumbies test of crash test dummies will perform their tasks entirely on a computer screen.
The humanoid crash scion test xb appearance of crash test dummies led to their becoming anthropomorphized.
In the 1980s, crash test (at)60 mph the US Department of Transportation launched a series of public service announcements in magazines and on television crash test + ambulance featuring the antics of two talking crash test - volvo crash test center crash dummies named Vince and Larry (Jack Burns and crash test clips Lorenzo Music) who modeled seat belt safety practices through their slapstick antics. The campaign, with its slogan "You can Learn a Lot crash test cop from a Dummy," was very popular, and since then crash test dammies mp3 crash dummy characters remain a common sight in crash test danny seat belt safety campaigns, especially those aimed at children.
In the crash test data early 1990s, Tyco Toys created a line of action figures called The Incredible Crash Dummies based crash test dog toys in canada on the characters from the ads. The colorful toys were intended crash test dude on dvd to fall apart at the touch of a button on their stomachs crash test dummie and could easily be re-assembled. Vehicles could also be bought, which could similarly be crashed into walls and broken, crash test dummies + mm and easily put back together.
The Incredible Crash Dummies line of toys featured crash test dummies + mp3 characters such as Slick and Spin, the main duo, and crash test dummies + superman their friends, Darryl, Spare Tire, and Bull. Later on, the villainous Junk crash test dummies - i'm gonna be 500 miles Bots were introduced.
The popularity of the toys prompted a one-hour television special, crash test dummies afternoons coffeespoons The Adventures of the Incredible Crash Dummies. Unique for its crash test dummies commercial time, the cartoon was produced entirely using 3D computer animation crash test dummies costume techniques. A comic book series was also produced as well as a video game crash test dummies games for the Nintendo Entertainment System.
Rumors say that due to complaints crash test dummies god shuffled his feet from some parents groups against the "violence" inherent in the toys, the series was discontinued. A more crash test dummies hockey pha likely explanation is that Tyco crash test dummies life Toys was dissolved in 2001.
In 2004, a series of "Crash Dummies" animated shorts were commissioned for the FOX network, crash test dummies living on lyrics thus spawning another crash test dummies lyrics help series of toys from Mattel through the Hot Wheels brand.
The television series MythBusters employs crash test dummies midi a crash test dummy for experiments that are too risky for the human hosts to crash test dummies mmmm mmmm mmmm try. "Buster" has tested, among other things, the dynamics of falling elevators, drops into water, crash test dummies mmmmmmmmmmmmmmm getting a foot stuck in a washing machine, getting shot out of a crash test dummies music drainage culvert, improper use of construction equipment and ancient attempts at crash test dummies ocean space flight. Buster was redesigned in the crash test dummies peter pumpkin quicktime second season of the show, giving him more realistic crash test dummies photos joints, easily replaceable wooden bones that break at the same force as human crash test dummies pics bones, and fire-proof molded latex skin.
- Car accident
- Car safety
- Safety car
- Seat belt crash test dummies song i'm gonna be 500 miles legislation
- Samuel W. Alderson
- Harold Mertz
- ^ Mary Ward 1827-1869. Famous Offaly People. Offaly crash test dummies superman s song Historical & Archaeological Society. Retrieved on April 25, 2006.
- ^ Carden, crash test dummies supermans song Gary. A curious look at the crash test dummies-mm lives of the dead. Retrieved April 18, 2006.
- ^ 'Fastest Man on Earth,' crash test dummis Col. John Paul Stapp, Dies at 89 (March 1, 2000). Retrieved April 18, 2006.
- ^ Roach, Mary (November 19, 1999). crash test dummy + commercial I was a human crash-test dummy. crash test dummy + picture Retrieved April 18, 2006.
- ^ I was a human crash-test dummy (Nov. 19, 1999).
- ^ Mello, Tara crash test dummy game Baukus (December 5, 2000).The Female Dummy: crash test dummy games No Brains, But A Real Lifesaver. Retrieved April 18, 2006.
- ^ How the Test are done (19 March crash test dummy logo 2003). Retrieved April 18, 2006.
- History of Crash crash test fusion Dummies
- How the dead have helped the living
- I was a human crash crash test hyundai santa fe test dummy
- The Female Crash Test Dummy She May Not Have a Brain, but She Could crash test motorcycle Save Your Life
- The "Sierra Sam" Story
- Meet 50th Percentile Hybrid III
- Biomechanics and the Cyberhuman
- It's Smart to be a Dummy
- Roach, Mary (2003). Stiff: The Curious Lives of Human Cadavers. New York: W.W. Norton & Co.. ISBN 0-393-05093-9.
- King AI, Viano DC, Mizeres N, States JD (1995). "Humanitarian benefits of cadaver research on injury prevention". J Trauma Injury Infect Crit Care 38: 564-569.
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