Jonathan Swift (November 30, 1667 – October 19, 1745) birthday poem was an Anglo-Irish priest, satirist, essayist, political pamphleteer, and poet, famous for works like Gulliver's Travels, A Modest Proposal, A Journal to Stella, The Drapier's birthdaypoems Letters, The Battle of bithday poems the Books, and A Tale of a Tub. Swift is probably the foremost prose satirist birthday poms in the English language, although he is less well known for his poetry. Swift birthday poes published all of his works under pseudonyms—such as Lemuel Gulliver, Isaac Bickerstaff, M.B. Drapier—or birthdaay poems anonymously.
- 1 Biography
- 2 Writings
- 3 Works
- 3.1 Major birthday poems funny birthday poems Prose
- 3.2 Essays, Tracts, Pamphlets, Periodicals
- 3.3 Poems
- 3.4 Correspondence, Personal Writings
- 3.5 Sermons, happy birthday poems Prayers
- 3.6 Miscellany
- 4 Works
- 4.1 Major free birthday poems sweet 16 birthday poems Prose Works
- 5 Biographical Sources
- 6 See also
- 7 External links
Swift as depicted on a IR£10 Series B Banknote funny 30th birthday poems of the Central Bank of Ireland
Jonathan Swift was born first birthday poems at No. 7, Hoey's Court, Dublin, the second happy birthday poems for a friend child and only son of Jonathan and Abigail Erick (or Herrick) Swift, English immigrants. Jonathan arrived seven months christian birthday poems after his father's untimely death. Most of the facts of Swift's early life are obscure, confused and sometimes contradictory. birthday love poems It is widely believed that his mother returned mother birthday poems to England when Jonathan was still very young, leaving him to be raised by his father's family. His poems for a sixtieth birthday short birthday poems uncle Godwin took primary responsibility for the young Jonathan, sending him to Kilkenny Grammar School with one of his cousins (also attended by 21st birthday poems the philosopher George Berkeley).
Jonathan Swift at Trinity
In 1682 he attended Dublin University (Trinity silly birthday poems College, Dublin), receiving his B.A. in 1686. Swift was studying for his Masters when political troubles in Ireland surrounding the Glorious Revolution forced him to belated birthday poems leave for England in 1688, where his mother helped him get poems for 16th birthday a position daughter to mother birthday poems as secretary and personal assistant of Sir William Temple at Moor Park. Temple was an English diplomat who, having arranged the Triple Alliance of elementary birthday poems 1668, retired from public service to his country estate to tend his gardens and write free 21st birthday poems his 50th birthday free poems memoirs. Growing into confidence with his employer, Swift "was often trusted with matters of great importance." Within three years of their acquaintance, free 40th birthday poems Temple had introduced his mothers birthday poems secretary to William III, and sent him to London to urge the poems for ur little brother on his birthday King to consent to a bill for triennial Parliaments.
When Swift took up his residence 30 birthday poems at Moor Park, he met Esther Johnson, then 8 years old, the fatherless daughter of one of the household servants. Swift beautiful birthday poems acted as her tutor and mentor, giving her the nickname "Stella" and the birthday poems free two maintained a close, but ambiguous, relationship for the rest of Esther's life.
Swift left birthday short poems mom greeting cards Temple in 1690 for Ireland because of his health, but returned to Moor Park the greeting cards birthday poems for friends following year. The illness, fits of vertigo or giddiness, now known to be Ménière's poems about baby's first birthday disease, would continue to plague Swift throughout his life. During poems for 50th birthday this second stay with Temple, Swift received 70 years birthday poems his M.A. from Hertford College, Oxford University in 1692. Then, apparently despairing of birthday name poems gaining a better position through Temple's patronage, Swift left Moor Park to be ordained birthday poems for mothers a priest in the Church of Ireland and was appointed to a prebend in Kilroot, near Carrickfergus in 1694.
Swift was miserable daughter birthday poems in funny 21 birthday poems his new position, being isolated in a small, remote community. While there, however, Swift may have become romantically involved with Jane Waring. A letter from happy birthday poems to mothers him religious birthday poems survives offering to remain if she would marry him and promising to leave and never return to Ireland if she refused. 75th birthday celebration poems She must have refused, because Swift left his post and returned to England and Temple's service birthday party poems at Moor Park in 1696 where he remained until Temple's birthday poems 50th free death. There he was employed in helping prepare Temple's memoirs and correspondence for christmas poems about jesus birthday publication. During this time Swift wrote The Battle of the Books, a satire responding to critics famous birthday poems of Temple's Essay upon Ancient and free sister birthday poems Modern Learning (1690). Battle was however not published until 1704.
In the summer of 1699 Temple died. Swift stayed on funny poems for a 60th birthday briefly to funny poems for kids on their birthday finish editing Temple's memoirs, perhaps in the hope that recognition of his work might earn him a suitable grandmother birthday poems position in England. However, Swift's work made enemies of some of Temple's family and friends who objected greeting cards free 60th birthday poems to indiscretions included in late birthday poems the memoirs. His next move was to approach King William directly, based on his imagined connection poems for birthday through Temple and a belief that he had been promised a position. This failed so miserably that he poems for mother's birthday accepted the lesser post of secretary sixteenth birthday poems and chaplain to the Earl of Berkeley, one of the Lords Justices of Ireland. However, when he reached Ireland he found that the secretaryship had spirtual birthday poems been given to another. He soon, however, obtained the sweet 16th birthday poems living of Laracor, Agher, and Rathbeggan, 40th birthday poems to a friend and the prebend of Dunlavin in St. Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin.
At Laracor, 50 birthday poems a mile or two from Trim, and twenty miles from Dublin, Swift ministered to a congregation of amanda bradley birthday poems about fifteen persons, and had abundant leisure for cultivating his garden, making a canal (after the Dutch fashion of Moor birthday love poems free Park), planting willows, and rebuilding the vicarage. As chaplain to Lord Berkeley, he birthday poems mothers spent much of his time fortieth birthday poems in Dublin and travelled to London frequently over the next ten years. In 1701, Swift published, anonymously, a political pamphlet, free 18th birthday poems for sisters A Discourse on the Contests and Dissentions in Athens and free sweet 16 birthday poems Rome.
In February 1702, Swift received his Doctor of Divinity degree from Trinity College, Dublin. give me some nice birthday poems That spring he traveled to happy 1st birthday poems England and returned to Ireland in October, accompanied by Esther Johnson — now twenty years old—and her friend Rebecca Dingley, another member of Wm. Temple's happy birthday sister poems household. There is a great mystery and controversy short funny birthday poems over Swift's relationship with Stella. Many hold that sweet birthday poems they were secretly married in 1716. Although there has never been definite proof of this, there is no doubt that she was 40th birthday greetings, poems dearer to him than anyone else and that his feelings for best friend's birthday poems her did not change throughout his life.
During his visits to England in these years Swift birthday poems for 13 year old daughter published A Tale of a Tub and The Battle of the Books (1704) birthday poems for a friend and began to gain a reputation birthday poems for sixty as a writer. This led to close, lifelong friendships with Alexander Pope, John Gay, and John birthday poems for someone special Arbuthnot, forming the core of the Martinus Scriberlus Club, founded in 1713).
Swift became increasingly birthday poems funny active politically in these years. From 1707 to 1709 and again in 1710, Swift was birthday short poems in London, unsuccessfully urging upon the Whig childrens birthday poems administration of Lord Godolphin the claims of the Irish clergy to the First-Fruits and Twentieths ("Queen Anne's Bounty"), first birthday poems and scriptures which brought in about £2500 a free 18th birthday poems year, already granted to their brethren in England. He found the free birthday love poems opposition Tory leadership more sympathetic to his cause and Swift was recruited to support their cause as editor of the Examiner when funny 50th birthday poems they came to power in 1710. In 1711, Swift funny 60th birthday poems published the political pamphlet "The Conduct of the Allies," attacking the Whig government for its inability funny birthday poems for seniors to end the prolonged war with France. The incoming Tory government conducted secret (and illegal) negotiations funny short poems for kids on their birthday with France, resulting in the Treaty greeting cards birthday poems of Utrecht (1713) ending the War of the Spanish Succession.
Swift was part happy 18th birthday poems of the inner circle of the Tory government and often acted as mediator between Henry St. John (Viscount Bolingbroke) the secretary of state happy birthday love poems for foreign affairs (1710-15) and happy birthday poems for friends Robert Harley (Earl of Oxford) lord treasurer and prime minister (1711-4). Swift recorded his experiences and humerous birthday poems thoughts during this difficult time in a long series of letters to Esther Johnson, later humorus birthday poems collected and published as The Journal poems for 40th birthday to Stella. The animosity between the two Tory leaders eventually lead to the dismissal of Harley in 1714. With the death of poems for 60th birthday Queen Anne and ascension of King George that poems for a 70th birthday year, the Whigs returned to power and the Tory leaders were tried for treason for conducting poems for a mothers birthday secret negotiations with France.
The title page to Swift's 1735 Works,
depicting the author in the Dean's chair, poems for mom on her birthday receiving the thanks of Ireland. The motto reads, "I have made a monument greater poems for mom or dad's birthday than brass." The 'brass' poems for mom's birthday is a double entendre, for Wood's half-pence (alloyed with brass) is scattered at his feet. Cherubim award Swift a poet's laurel.
Also during these twin birthday cards, poems years in London, Swift became acquainted with the Vanhomrigh family 1st birthday invation poems and became involved with one of the daughters, Hester, yet another fatherless young woman and 21 birthday poems an ambiguous relationship to confuse Swift's biographers. Swift furnished Hester with the 50th birthday funny poems nickname "Vanessa" and she features as one of best friend birthday poems the main characters in his poem Cadenus and Vanessa. The birthday invite poems poem and their correspondence suggests that Hester was infatuated with Swift, that he may birthday poems for black women have reciprocated her affections, only to regret it and then try to break it off. Hester followed Swift to Ireland in 1714, where there birthday poems for mothers and fathers appears to have been a confrontation, possibly involving Esther Johnson. Hester birthday poems short Vanhomrigh died in 1723 at the age of 35.
Before the birthday poems that rhyme of a lost loved one fall of the Tory government, Swift hoped that his services would be rewarded brother birthday poems with a church appointment in England. However, Queen Anne appears to have taken a dislike to Swift and free email brother poems birthday cards thwarted these efforts. The best position his free friend birthday poems friends could secure for him was the Deanery of St. free funny poems for 50th birthday Patrick's, Dublin. With the return of the Whigs, Swift's best move was to leave free poems for 60th birthday England and he returned to Ireland in disappointment, a free printable funny birthday poems virtual exile, to live "like a rat in a hole".
Once in Ireland, however, free printable happy birthday rhymes or poems Swift began to turn his pamphleteering skills in support of Irish causes, producing some of his most memorable works; Proposal for Universal free spanish birthday poems Use of Irish Manufacture (1720), The Drapier's Letters (1724), free sweet sixteen birthday poems and A Modest Proposal (1729); earning him the friend birthday poems status of an Irish patriot.
Also during these years, he began writing his masterpiece, funny children s birthday poems Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World, in Four Parts, by Lemuel Gulliver, first a surgeon, and then a captain of several ships, better known funny poems for 61st birthday as Gulliver's Travels. Much of the material reflects his political experiences happy 50th birthday poems of the preceding decade. For happy birthday to my son poems instance, the episode when the giant Gulliver puts out the Lilliputian palace fire by urinating on it can be seen as a poems for a family birthday metaphor for the Tories' illegal poems for birthday mother peace treaty; having done a good thing in an poems for daughter's birthday unfortunate manner. In 1726 he paid a long-deferred visit to London, taking with him the manuscript of poems for dead fathers on their birthday Gulliver's Travels. During his visit he stayed with his old friends, Alexander Pope. John Arbuthnot, and John Gay, who helped him arrange poems for mom on birthday for the anonymous publication of his book. First published poems for princess birthday invites in November 1726, it was an immediate hit, sister's birthday poems with a total of three printings that year and another in early 1727. French, German, and Dutch translations appeared sixtieth birthday poems in 1727 and pirated copies spanish birthday poems were printed in Ireland.
Swift returned to England one more time in stepson birthday greetings poems cards 1727 and stayed with Alexander Pope once again. The visit was cut short when he received word that 40th birthday party poems Esther Johnson was dying and Swift rushed back home to be with her. 41st birthday poems On January 28, 1728, Esther Johnson died. Though 50th birthday poems sentimental free he prayed at her bedside, even composing prayers for her comfort, Swift could not bear to be present at 70 birthday poems the end, but on the night of her death he began august birthday poems to write his very interesting The Death of Mrs. Johnson. He was too ill to attend the funeral at babys first birthday poems St. Patrick's. Many years later, a lock of hair, assumed to be Esther Johnson's, was found best birthday poems ever in his desk, wrapped in a paper bearing the words, "Only bibical poems for the deceased birthday a woman's hair."
Death became a frequent feature in Swift's life from birthday card poems this point. In 1731 he wrote Verses on the Death birthday card poems for friends of Dr Swift, his own obituary published birthday card poems on daughters in 1739. In 1732, his good friend and collaborator John Gay died. In birthday fingerplays and songs and poems 1735, John Arbuthnot, another friend from his days in London, died. In 1738 Swift began to show signs of illness birthday love poems for free and in 1742 he appears to have birthday memorial poems suffered a stroke, losing the ability to speak and realizing his worst fears of becoming mentally disabled. ("I shall be like birthday poems and homemade gifts free online that tree," he once said, "I shall die at the top.") In order to protect him birthday poems for a sister from unscrupulous birthday poems for an older women hangers on, who had begun to prey on the great man, his closest companions had him declared of "unsound mind and birthday poems for brothers memory." In 1744, Alexander Pope died. Then, on October 19, 1745, Swift died. He was buried birthday poems for daddy by Esther Johnson's side, in accordance with his wishes. The bulk of his fortune birthday poems for lost loved ones was left to found a hospital for the mentally ill.
Jonathan Swift, illustration from a birthday poems for sister 1905 collection of his works
- Text extracted from birthday poems for step dad the introduction to The Journal to Stella by George A. Aitken and from other sources)
Swift wrote his own epitaph:
- Hic depositum est corpus
- JONATHAN SWIFT birthday poems for students birthday poems from baby to mother S.T.D.
- Huyus Ecclesiae Cathedralis
- Ubi saeva indignatio
- Cor lacerare nequit
- Abi Viator
- Et imitare, si poteris
- Strenuum pro virili
- Libertatis Vindicatorem
- Obiit 19 birthday poems from us Die Mensis Octobris
- A.D. 1745 Anno Ætatis 78
which William Butler Yeats translated from the Latin as:
- Swift has sailed into his birthday poems ideas rest.
- Savage indignation there
- cannot lacerate his breast.
- Imitate him if you can,
- world-besotted traveller.
- He served birthday poems in german human liberty.
Dating generally birthday poems special follows the Norton Critical and Oxford Authors single-volume editions of Swift's writings, as well as Herbert Davis's (ed.) Swift: Poetical Works.
In 1708, when a cobbler named John classic birthday poems Partridge published a popular almanac of astrological predictions, Swift attacked Partridge in cool birthday poems Prediction For The Ensuing Year by Isaac Bickerstaff, a parody predicting daughter to mom birthday poems that Partridge would die on March 29th. Swift followed up with a pamphlet issued on March daughter's 10th birthday poems 30th claiming that Partridge had in fact died, which was widely believed despite Partridge's statements to the contrary.
Drapier's Letters (1724) fortith birthday poems was against the monopoly granted by the free 30th birthday poems English government to William Wood to provide the Irish free 50th birthday funny poems with copper coinage. In 1729, Swift wrote "A Modest Proposal", supposedly written by an intelligent and objective "political arithmetician" who had free 50th birthday poems carefully studied Ireland before making his proposal. free 65th birthday poems The author calmly suggests one solution for both the problem of overpopulation and the growing numbers of undernourished people: breed those free 90th birthday poems children who would otherwise free first birthday poems go hungry or be mistreated in order to feed the general public. More plainly: The free funny birthday poems narrator, with intentionally grotesque logic, recommends feeding the rich using impoverished infants as food.
Gulliver's Travels was published in 1726. Though free mother birthday poems it has often been mistakenly thought of as a children's book, free poems for 50th birthday it is a great satire of the times. Gulliver's Travels is free poems for 61st birthday a misanthropic anatomy of human nature; a sardonic looking-glass. It asks its free poems mother in law birthday readers to refute it, to deny that it has not adequately characterized human nature free printable funny 60th birthday poems and society. Each of the 4 books has a different theme, but all funny 44th birthday poems are attempts to deflate human pride.
Essays, Tracts, funny mum birthday poems Pamphlets, Periodicals
- "A Meditation upon a Broomstick" (1703-1710): Full text: Blackmask
- "A Tritical Essay upon the Faculties of funny poems birthday the Mind" (1707-1711)
- The Bickerstaff-Partridge Papers (1708-1709): Full text: U of Adelaide
- "An Argument against funny poems for 70th birthday Abolishing Christianity" (1708-1711): Full text: U of Adelaide
- The Intelligencer (with give me some nice birthday poems a 5 year old child Thomas Sheridan) (1710-????): Text: Project Gutenberg
- The Examiner (1710): Texts: Ourcivilisation.com, Project Gutenberg
- "A Proposal guy birthday poems for Correcting, Improving and Ascertaining the English Tongue" (1712): Full texts: Jack Lynch, U of Virginia
- "On the Conduct of the Allies" halloween birthday party poems (1713)
- "Hints Toward an happy birthday daughter poems Essay on Conversation" (1713): Full text: Bartleby.com
- "A Letter to a Young Gentleman, Lately Entered into happy birthday inspiritual poems Holy Orders" (1720)
- "A Letter of Advice to a Young Poet" happy birthday mother poems (1721): Full text: Bartleby.com
- The Drapier's Letters (1724, 1725): Full text: Project Gutenberg
- "Bon Mots de Stella" (1726): a curiously irrelevant appendix to "Gulliver's Travels"
- "An Essay happy birthday poems for a father on the Fates of Clergymen": Full text: JaffeBros
- "A Treatise on Good Manners humourous birthday poems and Good Breeding": i wont to read some birthday poems Full text: Bartleby.com
- "On the Death of Esther Johnson": Full text: Bartleby.com
- "An Essay On Modern Education": Full text: JaffeBros
- "Ode to ideas for birthday poems for husbands the Athenian Society" 1692 (first published work)
- Poems of mothers last birthday poems Jonathan Swift, D.D. Texts at Project Gutenberg: Volume One, Volume Two
- "Baucis and Philemon" (1706-1709): Full text: mum birthday poems Blackmask
- "A Description of the Morning" my first birthday poems (1709): Full annotated text: U of Toronto; Another text: U of Virginia
- "A Description of a City Shower" (1710): Full text: U of Virginia
- "Cadenus and poems 21st birthday Vanessa" (1713): Full text: Blackmask
- "Phillis, or, the Progress poems birthday of Love" (1719): Full text: theotherpages.org
- Stella's birthday poems:
- 1719. Full annotated text: U of Toronto
- 1720. Full poems first birthday text: U of Virginia
- 1727. Full poems for 1st birthday invitations text: U of Toronto
- "The Progress of Beauty" (1719-1720): Full text: OurCivilisation.com
- "The Progress of Poetry" (1720): Full poems for 61st birthday text: theotherpages.org
- "A Satirical Elegy on the Death of a Late Famous General" (1722): Full text: U of Toronto
- "To Quilca, a Country House not poems for a 90 year old birthday poems for a mother's birthday in Good Repair" (1725): Full text: U of Toronto
- "Advice to the Grub Street Verse-writers" (1726): Full text: U of Toronto
- "The Furniture poems for a sisters birthday of a Woman's Mind" (1727)
- "On a Very Old Glass" (1728): poems for an uncle's birthday Full text: Gosford.co.uk
- "A Pastoral Dialogue" (1729): Full text: Gosford.co.uk
- "The Grand Question debated Whether Hamilton's Bawn should be turned into a Barrack poems for dad's birthday or a Malt House" (1729): poems for daddy's birthday Full text: Gosford.co.uk
- "On Stephen Duck, the Thresher and Favourite Poet" (1730): Full text: U of Toronto
- "Death and Daphne" (1730): Full text: poems for fathernlaws birthday OurCivilisation.com
- "The Place of the Damn'd" (1731): Full text
- "A Beautiful poems for fiftieth birthday Young Nymph Going to Bed" poems for my aunty on her birthday (1731): Full annotated text: Jack Lynch; Another text: U of Virginia
- "Strephon and Chloe" (1731): Full annotated text: Jack Lynch; Another poems for my moms birthday text: U of Virginia
- "Helter Skelter" (1731): Full text: OurCivilisation.com
- "Cassinus and Peter: A Tragical Elegy" (1731): Full annotated poems for pastors birthday text: Jack Lynch
- "The Day of Judgment" (1731): Full text
- "Verses on poems for your boyfriends birthday the Death of Dr. Swift, D.S.P.D." (1731-1732): poems of birthday meories Full annotated texts: Jack Lynch, U of Toronto; Non-annotated text:: U of poems to celebrate 50th birthday Virginia
- "An Epistle To A Lady" (1732): Full text: OurCivilisation.com
- "The Beasts' Confession printable 18th birthday poems to the Priest" (1732): Full annotated text: U of Toronto
- "The Lady's Dressing Room" (1732): Full sad birthday poems annotated text: Jack Lynch
- "On Poetry: A Rhapsody" (1733)
- "The Puppet Show" Full text: Worldwideschool.org
- "The Logicians Refuted" Full short birthday love poems text: Worldwideschool.org
Correspondence, Personal Writings
- "When I Come to Be Old"—Swift's resolutions. (1699): sister-in-law birthday poems Full text: JaffeBros
- The Journal to Stella (1710-1713): Full text: U of Adelaide; Extracts: stepdaughter birthday poems free OurCivilisation.com
- Selected Letters: JaffeBros
- To Oxford and Pope: OurCivilisation.com
- Three Sermons and sweet birthday wishes and poems Three Prayers. Full text: U of Adelaide, Project Gutenberg
- Three Sermons: I. on mutual thirtieth birthday poems subjection. II. on conscience. III. on the trinity. Text: Project Gutenberg
- Writings on Religion and the Church. Text your birthday is special poems at Project Gutenberg: Volume One, Volume Two
- "The First He Wrote Oct. 17, 1727." Full text: Worldwideschool.org
- "The Second Prayer Was Written Nov. 6, 1727." Full text: Worldwideschool.org
- Directions to Servants (1731):: Extracts: OurCivilisation.com
- A Complete Collection of Genteel and Ingenious Conversation (1731)
- "Thoughts on Various Subjects." Full text: U of Adelaide
- Historical Writings: Project Gutenberg
- Swift Quotations: JaffeBros—Many choice, well-documented Swift quotations here.
- Swift quotes at Bartleby: Bartleby.com—59 quotations, with notes.
- See, Timeline of environmental events
Jonathan Swift was a prolific writer. The most recent collection of his prose works (Herbert Davis, ed. Basil Blackwell, 1965-) comprises fourteen volumes. A recent edition of his complete poetry (Pat Rodges, ed. Penguin, 1983) is 953 pages long. One edition of his correspondence (David Woolley, ed. P. Lang, 1999) fills three volumes.
The subjects and themes of Jonathan Swift's writings generally and understandably follow the events and concerns in his life. This is one of the reasons that his critics pay so much attention to his biography, the established facts and the many disputed items, as a means of elucidating the true meaning of his writings. While perhaps an oversimplication, it can be seen how his earliest works show an academic interest in the philosophical issues of his day, shifting to the concerns of the Church that he represented both as a priest and a lobbyist, turning then to political matters as he leant his pen to the Tory party, and finally taking up the cause of the Irish people in defense of his nation of exile. Throughout these larger trends are the personal writings which give tantalizing but inconclusive hints about Swift's inner life.
Major Prose Works
- A Tale of a Tub 1696 (published 1704)
- The Battle of the Books 1697 (published 1704)
- "When I Come to Be Old" 1699
- "A Letter Concerning the Sacramental Test," 1708
- "Sentiments of a Church of England Man" 1708
- "Bickerstaff/Partridge" papers 1708
- ""Proposal for the Advancement of Religion" 1709
- Examiner 1710 -
- The Conduct of the Allies 1711
- An Argument Against Abolishing Christianity 1711
- Correcting the English Tongue 1712
- Public Spirit of the Whigs 1714
- A Letter of Advice to a Young Poet 1720
- The Drapier's Letters to the People of Ireland Against Receiving Wood's Halfpence 1724
- Gulliver's Travels 1726
- A Modest Proposal 1729
- A Complete Collection Of Genteel and Ingenious Conversation 1738
Swift's first major prose work, A Tale of a Tub, demonstrates many of the themes and stylistic techniques he would employ in his later work. It is at once wildly playful and funny while being very pointed and harshly critical of its targets. In its main thread, the Tale recounts the exploits of three sons, representing the main threads of Christianity, who receive a bequest from their father of a coat each, with the added instructions to make no alternations whatsoever. However, the sons soon find that their coats have fallen out of current fashion and begin to look for loopholes in their father's will which will allow them to make the needed alterations. As each finds his own means of getting around their father's admonition, they struggle with each other for power and dominance. Inserted into this story, in alternating chapters, Swift includes a series of whimsical "discourses" on various subjects.
In 1690, Sir William Temple, Swift's patron, published An Essay upon Ancient and Modern Learning a defense of classical writing (see Quarrel of the Ancients and the Moderns) holding up the Epistles of Phalaris as an example. William Wotton responded to Temple with Reflections upon Ancient and Modern Learning (1694) showing that the Epistles were a later forgery. A response by the supporters of the Ancients was then made by Charles Boyle (later the 4th Earl of Orrery and father of Swift's first biographer). A further retort on the Modern side came from Richard Bentley, one of the pre-eminent scholars of the day, in his essay Dissertation upon the Epistles of Phalaris (1699). However, the final words on the topic belong to Swift in his Battle of the Books (1697) in which he makes a humorous defense on behalf of Temple and the cause of the Ancients.
- Samuel Johnson's Life of Swift: JaffeBros. From his Lives of the Poets.
- William Makepeace Thackeray's influential vitriolic biography: JaffeBros. From his English Humourists of The Eighteenth Century.
- Bullitt, John M. Jonathan Swift and the Anatomy of Satire: A Study of Satiric Technique. Cambridge: Harvard U P, 1953.
- Many other sources are listed here.
- List of people on stamps of Ireland
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Wikisource has original works written by or about:
- Gulliver's Travels Deciphered, by Alastair Sweeny
- e-texts of Swift's works
- at The Online Books Page
- Works by Jonathan Swift at Project Gutenberg
- at Gulliver's Travels
- St Patrick's Hospital: Swift's Legacy
- Swift and Gulliver
- Free audiobook of A Modest Proposal from LibriVox
- Jonathan Swift Resource
Categories: Anglo-Irish people | Anglo-Irish artists | 1667 births | 1745 deaths | Fantasy writers | Irish writers | Irish poets | Neoclassicism | British satirists | British Freemasons | People associated with Trinity College, Dublin | Irish Anglicans | Anglican priests | Natives of County Dublin